Published on April 27, 2014
WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING ??? • Cloud computing is a model for enabling on-demand access to shared pool of compute resources e.g. server, application ,data storage and infrastruture. • In other words, cloud computing is a model for delivering IT services. Instead of a direct connection to the server as in case of traditional client server computing, the resources are retrieved from the Internet though web-based tools and applications. • Application and databases are stored in servers. The cloud computing structure allows access to cloud resources as long as an devices has access to the web. This allows employees to work remotely and to pay only for what he access. 2
Virtualization: This computing paradigm virtualizes systems by pooling and sharing resources. Resources can be provisioned as needed from a centralized pool of resources, costs are assessed on a metered basis, multi-tenancy is enabled, and resources are scalable with agility. So one of the most important ideas behind this paradigm is Scalability and the key technology that makes that possible is Virtualization. 3
What is Virtualization ??? • Virtualization, in computing, is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, a storage device or servers. • Ability to emulate hardware via software. • The ability to run multiple operating systems (single user or multiuser) on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources 4
Before Virtualization What were the limitation? Single OS image per machine Software and hardware tightly coupled Running multiple applications on same machine often creates conflicts. Underutilized resources Inflexible & costly infrastructure 5
After Virtualization What are the benefits now ? Hardware-independence of operating system and applications Virtual machines can be provisioned to any system Management of OS and application as a single unit by encapsulating them into virtual Machines Better Utilization of resources taken place Maintenance would be very easy 6
VIRTUAL MACHINE • A virtual machine (VM) is a software based, virtual computer. • Software implementation of a machine (i.e. a computer) that executes programs like a physical machine. • Classified into two majors: • A system virtual machine provides a complete system platform which supports the execution of a complete operating system. • A process virtual machine (language virtual machine like java JVM) is designed to run a single program, which means that it supports a single process. 7
• Definitions – Hypervisor (VMM – Virtual Machine Monitor) is a software layer that allows several virtual machines to run on a physical machine – The physical OS and hardware are called the Host – The virtual machine OS and applications are called the Guest 8 VMware ESX, Microsoft Hyper-V Hardware Hypervisor VM1 VM2 Type 1 (bare-metal) Host Guest Hardware OS Process Hypervisor VM1 VM2 Type 2 (hosted) VMware Workstation, Microsoft Virtual PC Host Guest TYPES OF HYPERVISOR
Types of Virtualization • Full Virtualization. • Para Virtualization. 9
FULL VIRTUALIZATION • Almost complete simulation of the actual hardware to allow guest operating system, to run unmodified. • Full virtualization is important for running non-open-source operating system such as Windows, because it is too difficult to modify the Windows kernel without source code . 10
PARA VIRTUALIZATION • A hardware environment is not simulated,however, the guest programs are executed in their own isolated domains, as if they are running on a separate system. Guest programs need to be specifically modified to run in this environment. • Para virtualization requires the guest OS kernel to be modified to become aware of the hypervisor. • OS-level information about the VM can be passed explicitly from the OS to the VMM, and this is done in practice to some extent. 11
Key Features of Virtualization Partitioning •Different OS can run on one physical machines •System resources can be divided between virtual machines. Isolation Fault and security isolation on a hardware level Extended resource control for constant performance. Encapsulation Complete status of a virtual machine can be stored in a file. Move and copy of a virtual machine is as easy as it is with files. 12
Server Virtualization in Cloud Computing Environment 110 Servers without VMware software EQUALS TO 12 Servers, 1 rack with VMware software 13
Storage Virtualization in Cloud Computing Environment It involves the virtualization of physical storage devices/servers. It allows many different users or applications to access storage, regardless of where that database server is located or what kind of storage device it is. 14 Amazone S3 Storage
Virtual Machine Migration OR Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment • The Virtualization allows the live migration of virtual machines from one physical server to another and needs therefore no downtime for maintenance activities. • Move running applications to other servers without disruption, Zero downtime for hardware maintenance. • Automates moving virtual machines to other hosts and automates re- balancing after maintenance complete. 15
Unplanned Downtime OR Server Failure handling in Cloud Computing Environment • Automatic restart of virtual machines in case of server failure. • No need for dedicated stand- by-hardware. • None of the cost and complexity of clustering. 16
SECURITY CHALLENGES • Scaling: Virtualization enables rapid creation and addition of new virtual machines. Without total automation, this dynamic growth capacity can destabilize security management activities such as system configuration and updates, resulting in vulnerability to security incidents . • Diversity: Increased heterogeneity of operating systems and environments will increased security management difficulties, and present a more varied attack surface. • Identity: Static means of identifying machines, such as MAC addresses or owner name, may not function with virtualization. Machine ownership and responsibility is harder to track in a dynamic virtualized environment . • Data lifetime: Guest OS‘s may have security requirements about data lifetime that are invalided by a VMM‘s‘ logging with VM mobility, it is possible that sensitive data may be left in widely distributed persistent storage. 17
Conclusion “Virtualization is one of the main cost-saving, hardware-reducing, and energy-saving techniques used by cloud providers” With OS virtualization each VM can use a different operating system (OS), and each OS is isolated from the others and it can run different services . Less number of servers required for the same number of applications to run. IBM Smart cloud and Amazone ES2 uses server virtualization heavily. Less maintenance overhead for the IT staff. More resource utilization and less power consumption thus increase profits. Easier (and faster) to increase or decrease load on servers(Load balancing). DRP (Disaster Recovery Planning) becomes easier. Without any interruption to the service, one can backup and even migrate entire virtual environments. 18
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