60 %
40 %
Information about cloning

Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Simeone


Cloning:  Cloning Dr. Abdelsalam Talafha, DVM Diplomate, American College of Theriogenologists Cloning:  Cloning Production of genetically identical individuals that have identical nuclear DNA Cloning Technologies:  Cloning Technologies Recombinant DNA technology DNA cloning Molecular cloning Gene cloning Reproductive cloning Therapeutic cloning Embryo cloning DNA Cloning:  DNA Cloning Transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid Plasmids Self-replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from normal bacterial genome DNA Cloning - Uses:  DNA Cloning - Uses Gene therapy Genetic engineering of organisms Genome sequencing Reproductive Cloning :  Reproductive Cloning A technology used to generate an animal that has same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal Dolly How Is Reproductive Cloning Done? Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) SCNT:  SCNT Starts with removal of polar body and chromosomes from an oocyte Enucleated oocyte Donor cell then inserted into perivitelline space of enucleated oocyte SCNT:  SCNT Oocyte and donor cell are fused and activated by an electric pulse to begin cell division Developed embryos transferred to surrogate females Birth of an individual SCNT:  SCNT Sources of somatic cells Cell from individual Cells grown in culture Frozen tissue Therapeutic Cloning:  Therapeutic Cloning Production of human embryos for use in research Goal To harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease Therapeutic Cloning:  Therapeutic Cloning Stem cells Cells have ability to divide and give rise to both specialized cells and more stem cells Derived from Adults Preimplantation embryos (Embryonic stem cells) Stem Cells:  Stem Cells Replacement cells to treat Heart disease Alzheimer's Cancer Diabetes Parkinson's disease Spinal cord injury SCNT- Potential Biotechnological Applications:  SCNT- Potential Biotechnological Applications Harvesting donor cells from transgenic animal Genetic modification of cultured donor cells prior to nuclear transfer Producing genetically modified cloned offspring Genetically Modified Cloned Offspring:  Genetically Modified Cloned Offspring Biotechnological applications Production of pharmaceuticals Xenotransplantation Study and eradication of human disease Improvement of livestock Production Of Pharmaceuticals:  Production Of Pharmaceuticals Gene expressing human coagulation factor IX introduced into ovine fetal fibroblasts linked to another gene with a high level of expression in mammary gland Protein expressed in milk Production Of Pharmaceuticals:  Production Of Pharmaceuticals Insulin for diabetes Interferon for viral infections Tissue plasminogen activator (which dissolves blood clots) Xenotransplantation:  Xenotransplantation Aim: To develop animals whose organs will not cause an immunological response and destroy transplanted tissue when transferred to humans Xenotransplantation:  Xenotransplantation Pig organs Hearts, lungs, kidneys, liver Neural tissue for Parkinson's Islets cells for diabetes patients Study Human Disease:  Study Human Disease Sheep model to investigate human cystic fibrosis Cloned sheep used for drug testing and to evaluate new therapies Improvement Of Livestock:  Improvement Of Livestock Cloning animal with excellent traits Production of a large number of clones from high quality animals Allow overall genetic improvement of herd Repopulate endangered animals Animal Cloning:  Animal Cloning Sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, and mice Cloning efforts in rabbits, rats, cats, dogs, and horses are ongoing Risks Of Cloning:  Risks Of Cloning Reproductive cloning expensive and highly inefficient > 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring Risks Of Cloning:  Risks Of Cloning High rate of fetal loss during pregnancy Compromised immune function Higher rates of infection Tumor growth Early neonatal death Abnormally large at birth Die mysteriously Risks Of Cloning:  Risks Of Cloning Cloned fetuses have abnormalities Abnormal placentation Pregnancy toxemia Hydroallantois Should Humans Be Cloned?:  Should Humans Be Cloned? Due to Inefficiency of animal cloning Lack of understanding about reproductive cloning Risks of cloning Should Humans Be Cloned?:  Should Humans Be Cloned? Unethical to attempt to clone humans Same problems would be expected in human cloning We do not know how cloning could impact mental development Should Humans Be Cloned?:  Should Humans Be Cloned? High risk to health of fetus or infant and mother Psychological risks for mother as a result of Late spontaneous abortions Birth of a stillborn child Birth of a child with severe health problems

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Cloning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Organism cloning (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another.
Read more

What is Cloning? - Learn Genetics

You may have heard about researchers cloning, or identifying, genes that are responsible for various medical conditions or traits. What's the difference?
Read more | cloning | Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch

Übersetzung für cloning im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch
Read more

Cloning: MedlinePlus - National Library of Medicine ...

Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. The copied material, which has the ...
Read more

Cloning Fact Sheet - National Human Genome Research ...

What is cloning? Do clones ever occur naturally? What are the types of artificial cloning? What sort of cloning research is going on at NHGRI? How are ...
Read more

Cloning - Learn Genetics

WHAT IS CLONING ? Learn the basics about cloning and see how it’s done.
Read more

Human cloning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the ...
Read more

Cloning | Thermo Fisher Scientific

Get Invitrogen™ cloning and expression vectors, GeneArt® gene synthesis and assembly tools, and molecular biology essentials offer reliable cloning ...
Read more

Cloning (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

1. What is Cloning? Strictly speaking, cloning is the creation of a genetic copy of a sequence of DNA or of the entire genome of an organism. In ...
Read more

Cloning - PCR Strategy - Primer Design - EMBL

GC content. The GC content of a primer should be between 40 and 60%. Design of the 5'-end primer. The 5'-end primer overlaps with the 5'-end of the gene of ...
Read more