climate dr mcdougal

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Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Candelora

Source: authorstream.com

Agronomic and Environmental Benefits of Managing Carbon:  Agronomic and Environmental Benefits of Managing Carbon Carbon management will not occur in isolation.:  Carbon management will not occur in isolation. Farmers manage for production, profit, and long-term sustainability of the resource Conservationists manage for healthy intact ecosystems, biodiversity, and preservation of the resource Managing for carbon in Manitoba landscapes must enhance these goals Agronomic? :  Agronomic? Management practices that promote agricultural efficiency and make economic sense, measured in terms of profit, land stewardship, and long-term sustainability on the landscape Environmental? Management practices that promote environmental health, measured in terms of air, soil and water quality, and preservation of biodiversity and wild spaces on the landscape Agronomic and Environmental?:  Agronomic and Environmental? Landscape-scale management practices that incorporate considerations of environmental health within land stewardship and make economic sense for agricultural and conservation land managers Can carbon management in Manitoba be a win-win situation for agriculture and the environment? Why manage carbon in Manitoba?:  Why manage carbon in Manitoba? Increasing the carbon sink capacity of biological sinks (e.g. soils, forest biomass, prairie wetlands(?)) will provide a “stop-gap” reduction in net greenhouse gas emissions, allowing other sectors time to develop new technologies to reduce GHG emissions directly. Carbon sinks may equal carbon credits for land-owners (a direct economic benefit) Manitoba is a low emitter of GHGs:  Manitoba is a low emitter of GHGs Why manage carbon in Manitoba? Agriculture as an Emitter of Greenhouse Gases:  Agriculture as an Emitter of Greenhouse Gases Canadian agricultural GHG emissions in 1996 = 64 million tonnes (9.5%) Why manage carbon in Manitoba?:  Water Quality Soil Quality GHG Emission Reduction Sustainability Profitability Why manage carbon in Manitoba? Air Quality Agronomic and Environmental Benefits of Managing Carbon:  Agronomic and Environmental Benefits of Managing Carbon Increased soil health for higher productivity Increased control over pesticide fate and decomposition Decreased soil erosion Decreased compaction and decreased likelihood of water run-off Decreased inputs (less fuel use, more uniform application of N and P fertilizers and pesticides, therefore more efficiency) Agronomic and Environmental Benefits of Managing Carbon:  Agronomic and Environmental Benefits of Managing Carbon Decreased inputs (nutrients, soil, pesticides) to adjacent ecosystems (riparian areas, wetlands, rivers) Increased areas of grassland, therefore increased health of riparian areas and buffer strips Decreased incidence of bathtub-ring salinity An economic and environmental reason to maintain prairie wetlands in farm fields and to restore some drained wetlands? Soil Organic Matter - The Record:  Soil Organic Matter - The Record SOM levels have declined since cultivation Alternate management may result in soils of higher SOM content C sequestration Requires inputs Net GHG impact? Slide12:  Soil Organic Matter Water Storage Reduced Soil Erosion Water Access Soil Pathogen Control Fertility Profit! Enhancing the Stability of “Fixed” C:  Enhancing the Stability of “Fixed” C Agricultural Management Options Tillage systems Harvest & use Food vs. Fiber Land use change Erosion control? Tillage Erosion and Carbon Dynamics:  Tillage Erosion and Carbon Dynamics In rolling and hummocky landscapes, organic-rich topsoil is lost from the hilltops and carbonate-rich subsoil is exposed. The exposure and acidification of carbonate-rich subsoil material on upper slopes increases CO2 emissions from inorganic carbon sources in these landscapes Inorganic carbon processes may be equal in importance to organic carbon processes Slide15:  Agricultural Soil C sequestration Enhanced soil quality Verifiable sink? Permanence of the sink? Who has long-term responsibility/liability Value? Will the value of a C sink be sufficient to interest farmers? Investing in the Carbon Sink Potential of Agriculture and Wetland Sustainability:  Investing in the Carbon Sink Potential of Agriculture and Wetland Sustainability Finding a Natural Solution Agriculture & Wetlands Greenhouse Gas Initiative – Ducks Unlimited Canada Slide17:  Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Canadian Wildlife Service (EC) Ducks Unlimited Canada National Water Research Institute (EC) University of Alberta University of Manitoba University of Saskatchewan Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development Research Collaborators: Agriculture & Wetlands Greenhouse Gas Initiative – Ducks Unlimited Canada Rationale for Prairie/Parkland::  Rationale for Prairie/Parkland: Prairie Wetlands as Carbon Sinks?:  Prairie Wetlands as Carbon Sinks? High primary productivity Reduced decomposition (anaerobic, cold) Pristine wetlands store two to five times as much carbon as farmed wetlands Reduced methane emissions due to methane oxidation (role of algae, plants, methanotrophs) Low nitrous oxide levels Slide20:  Wetland contributions to global annual greenhouse gas emissions (Note: 1 Tg = 1012 g) (Houghton 1990, Davidson 1991, Bartlett and Harriss 1993) Slide21:  Methane emissions in wetlands by latitude Peatlands Wetlands A+C: Aselmann and Crutzen M+F: Mathews and Fung (from Bartlett and Harriss 1993) N S S N 96-135 mg m-2 d-1 48-63 mg m-2 d-1 Research Objectives::  Research Objectives: Research Objectives::  Research Objectives: Slide24:  Landscape Element ST Mid TR GE CF ST Mid GE CF TP CFS DFS CBS DBS CS DS Soil Organic Carbon (Mg ha-1, 0 to 60 cm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Field Pond 117 Pond 120 Upland soils Wetland soils Transition soils Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements David Burton, University of Manitoba David Lobb, University of Manitoba Dan Pennock, University of Saskatchewan Ken Belcher, University of Saskatchewan Marie Boehm, AAFC

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