Published on March 9, 2014
CLIMATE AND MESOCLIMATE IN THE MIÑO VALLEY (GALICIA, NW SPAIN). D. Blanco, C. Alvarez, and J.M.G. Queijeiro Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, Vigo University, Ourense, Spain
Introduction: location Galicia is located on the edge of the NW Atlantic shelf of the Iberian Peninsula. Matárc aC bo rni Oao co Aétic tlán n M r Mern eita e dráo AouaRr io Cñ ieM r vñ Smole aia e ng Ctptd ooa s RSAA I BX AIS VDRS AE R LOA eil ivrSNRI RMTR OEE
Introduction: The wine growing sector in Galicia Extension. Vines are grown in more than 30.000 ha. Of these, about 8.300 ha are recognized by some of the five main AOCs present. Production: An average of 269.000 hl of wine are produced per an. AOC Area (ha) Production Production (litres) (t) Rias Baixas 1800 6.500.000 9.500 Ribeiro 3100 13.500.000 18.000 Ribeira Sacra 1400 1.750.000 2.500 Valdeorras 1500 4.500.000 6.000 Monterrei 500 600.000 850
Introduction: The wine growing sector in Galicia AOCs location: Of the five AOCs registered in Galicia, three can be found in the Miño valley. Some of the area of a fourth one – Rias Baixas- also lies in the estuary of the river. AouaRr io Cñ ieM r vñ Smole atptd nae io a g Cs o RSAA I BX AIS VDRS AE R LOA ril eS iv OER RMTRI N E
Introduction: Climate in the Miño valley There is a cool climate under a strong maritime influence due to exposure to storms from the west (Huetz, 1967). The maritime influence decreases as one moves eastwards. AOC Ds Alt Mat Et Atr Map App Ffp Rias Baixas 18 52 14,7 1745 11,6 1707 483 303 Ribeiro 109 121 13,7 1593 13,7 1341 362 236 R. Sacra 165 486 13,6 1538 12,8 662 259 230 Barco 229 417 13,4 1513 15,0 809 247 218 Ds: distance from sea, km; Alt: altitude, m; Mat: mean anual temperature ºC, Et: sum of effective temperatures (Ta> 10ºC); Atr: average annual temperature range (ºC); Map: average annual rainfall (mm); App: average rainfall in mm from April to September (mm); Ffp: duration in days of frost free period.
Objectives To demonstrate the suitability of today´s Galician AOCs given the latest information in the field of Climatic Zoning. To identify and characterize the mesoclimates present in the Miño valley. To identify the climatic parameters and indices useful to distinguish those mesoclimates.
Materials Data corresponding to a 30 year period from stations of the Spanish Institute of Meteorology. Meteorological data from the new automatic stations of the Regional Meteorological Service. Standarized data from the literature (Carballeira et al., 1983).
Methods Selection of stations with the help of GeoMedia cartographic package so that we were able to choose those stations situated in or near the Galician AOCs. Filling in of time series gaps and homogeneization of candidate stations based on reference stations with the help of Anclim software. Calculation of climatic indices used in different world wine growing areas to identify and characterize mesoclimates. The climatic data and indices were then processed statistically by means of a principal component analysis using SPSS 12.
Results from PCA 41,3% of the variability is explained by a first component associated to rainfall and indices relating rainfall to temperature. Temperature and indices based on temperature are grouped as a second component accounting for 38,3% of the variability. A third component (8,5% varibility) is connected to annual temperature range, the frost free period and night freshness index. Item Iat Atr C2 C3 App Ffp Hug Hid Dav DeM .97 C1 Map .95 .88 .95 .86 .80 -.76 .82 .88 Tac Gia ITe Hig .84 .98 Hel NiF -.93 .98 .98 .90
Results: main climatic factors The most useful climatic factors related to the identification and description of climatic types present in the geography of wine production in the Miño valley are seen to be fundamentally: Mean annual rainfall (Map) Active period precipitation (App) Average temperature during growing period (Tac) Length of the period free from mean frosts (Ffp)
Results: main climatic indices As to climatic indices we can indicate the outstandingly useful results of: Brana´s hydrothermic index Giacobbe index De Martonne aridity index Hidalgo index Night freshness index Huglin index
Results: distinct wine climates identifyed We obtain four distinct weather station groups that can be associated to different types of climate.
Discussion A first climatic group includes all weather stations located in the Sil river valley. These stations are characterized by their distance from the sea with a more continental climate, less rainfall and higher temperature ranges. Aoñ Rr io Cua ieM r vñ Smole aiae ng Ctptd ooa s VDRS AE R LOA ril eS iv OER RMTRI N E
Discussion A second climatic group would include those stations located within the Ribeiro AOC which are also located to the East of the Galician mountain chain and leeward from the wet fronts which arrive from the sea. Aoñ Rr io Cua ieM r vñ Smole atptd nae io a g Cs o ril eS iv R
Discussion Almost all of the other stations belong to the Rias Baixas AOC and are located to the West of the Galician Mountain Chain albeit they can present quite different climates. Aoñ Rr io Cua ieM r vñ Smole atptd nae io a g Cs o RSAA I BX AIS il rS e iv R
Conclusions From a climatic point of view: A distinction between Ribeira Sacra and Valdeorras AOCs isn´t apparent. The Rias Baixas AOC is too heterogenous including zones with mesoclimatic characteristics which differ from each other. For the Galician conditions some parameters and indices adequate for wine climate characterization were identified.
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