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Information about Climate

Published on February 14, 2014

Author: chusteacher



Developed by María Jesús Campos Fernández, Social Studies, Geography and History teacher in a bilingual section in Madrid.

María Jesús Campos

Climate It is the usual state of the atmosphere in a place over a long period of time. The sum up of weather in a place during more than 30 years give rise to climate.  It is studied by Climatology. 

  The combination of meteorological phenomena. Meteorological phenomena (temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, air masses, precipitation) give rise to weather. The average pattern of that combination on a place during more than 30 years determines Climate.

Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Precipitation Temperature Air Masses Weather Average weather during more than 30 years CLIMATE

The earth’s has got different types of climate distributed according to latitude and altitude:    Warm zone: located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. All of its climates have an average annual temperature above 18ºC. Temperate zones: there are 2 temperate zones located between the Tropics and the Polar Circles. Its climates have an average annual temperature around 15ºC and different seasons. Cold zones: there are 2 cold zones located within the polar circles and in mountains higher than 2,500 metres. The temperatures are very cold, usually below 0ºC.

    Within those climate zones we can find at least 12 different types of climate. Each of them is grouped in a category according to the characteristics that they share and the area in which they are found. Climate changes over time but very slowly. The Earth has experienced many different climates over its 4.54 billion years.

Tropical or Hot Climates Temperate or Moderate Climates Cold Climates Equatorial Climate Humid Subtropical Climate Polar Climate Arid or Hot Dessert Humid Tropical Climate Mediterranean Climate Tundra Climate Semiarid Dry Tropical Climate Maritime/Oceanic Climate Alpine Climate Continental Climate

Location • Along the Equator, usually within 25º of the Equator Temperature Precipitation • These areas receive constant direct sunlight so temperatures are high and stay the same throughout most of the year. •The mean annual temperature is over 25ºC • Abundant and regular rainfall throughout the year. The regular warm temperatures evaporate water and keep humidity high allowing it to rain almost every day. • Precipitation is over 1500 mm annually. Seasons • Only 1 season because these area always receive direct sunlight throughout the entire year.

Location • Near the Equator, on the outer edges of Equatorial climate. Temperature Precipitation • Temperatures are high throughout the year. • Abundant rainfall but under 1500 mm annually. •The mean annual temperature is over 20ºC • Precipitation only falls during the summer monts, usually from May to August with June and July having the heaviest rain. • Seasons • 2 seasons, wet (summer) and dry (winter). Usually the dry season is longer.

Location • Near the Equator, on the outer edges of Equatorial climate. Temperature Precipitation • Temperatures are high throughout the year. But they are mild in winter and hot in summer. •The mean annual temperature is over 18ºC • Precipitation is scarce, although more than 250 mm annually. Seasons • 2 seasons, wet (summer) and dry (winter). Usually the dry season is longer.

Location Temperature Precipitation Seasons • On the east coast of continents between 20º and 40º north and south of the Equator • Hot humid summers and mild winters as these areas receive direct sunlight for a large part of the years. • The rain falls throughout the year, but more in summer. This is because the regularly high temperatures evaporate water causing humidity and precipitation. • 2 seasons, summer and winter. However winter is not a cold winter. •The mean annual temperature varies between 10ºC and 20ºC • Precipitation is over 1000 mm annually. • Summer season lasts longer.

Location Temperature Precipitation Seasons • Between 30º and 45º latitudes (N-S). On the western sides of continents. It gets its name from the climate found around the Mediterranean Sea. • Warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. • Precipitation is irregular. Most precipitation falls in spring and autumn. Summers have little or no precipitation. • Mild climate. It has 4 seasons but only 2 of them are really clear: summer and winter. •The mean annual temperature varies between 12º to 18º. Temperatures during the summer can reach 30º. • Precipitation is irregular and varies between 300mm to 800 mm anually. • Summers are longer than winters, and winters are usually mild.

Location • Along the west coast of mid-latitude continents. Midway between the tropics and the Artic/Antartic circles. •It is stopped by the presence of mountains so this climate covers more land in Europe than in North America where mountains block the humid air from moving farther inland. Temperatur Precipitation e • Mild climate with few extremes in temperature. •The ocean’s influence keeps the air over the land cool in summer and warm in winter. •Temperatures vary between 10º to 20º. • Precipitation is regular and abundant. • Precipitation between 1000 and 1500 mm annually. Seasons • Temperatures do not vary much during the year so we only distinguish 2 seasons clearly: summer and winter.

Location • In the interior of continents between 30º and 60º latitude (N-S), but usually above the 40º line. •Mainly in the Northen Hemisphere since there are no major landmasses in the Southern Hemisphere. Temperature Precipitation • A wide range of • Marked temperatures contrast because of between warm, latitude (less rainy summers direct sunlight and dry cold and warmth). winters. •Temperatures are high in summer(20ºC) and low in winter (less than 5ºC) • Precipitation is between 300 and 1000 mm annually. •Almost all the regions of this climate experience snow. Seasons • 4 seasons: warm and humid summer; cool and dry autumn; cold and harsh winter; and warm and wet spring.

Location • Located near the poles. •It covers a 20% of the Earth. •It is the most extreme climate of the Earth. Temperature Precipitation Seasons • It is the coldest climate on Earth because of its latitude. •It receives indirect sunligh during part of the year while in “winter” the area is in total darkness. •Temperatures are never higher than 5ºC, and may fall to -50ºC. • Scarce precipitation , less than 300 mm because its too cold to evaporate the water, so the humidity in the air is too low to create precipitation. • There is not traditional summer but we can distinguish 2 seasons determined by the amount of light. •“Summer”:nearly 24 hours of light (the pole is pointed towards the sun) •“Winter”: nearly 24hrs of total darkness (the pole is facing away from the sun) •Precipitation falls as snow.

Location • Between 60-75º latitude, along the coast of the Artic Ocean. Temperature Precipitation Seasons •Because of the high latitude, indirect sunlight delivers light but little heat. •Winters are very harsh while summers are cool. •Although snow melts in summer, the deeper parts of the soil stay frozen, is a layer called permafrost. • Low levels of precipitation as temperatures are too low to cause evaporation. •It can be considered a “desert” •Winters are very harsh and summers are cool.

Location •In high mountain areas. •In sinle mountains such as Mount Kilimanjaro and also in large areas such as the Plateau of Tibet. Temperature •This climate changes as you move up to the mountain. Temperature depends on the elevation. Precipitation Seasons • Precipitation •No seasons depends also on elevation. • Sometimes the base of the mountain may •As you move up it will be dry while get colder and snow there is snow in may appear. the top of the •Temperature drops mountain. This about 6,5º degrees happens every 1000 m in because high elevation as you move mountains force up a mountain. warm air to rise, so precipitation falls at the top.

Location Temperature • Arid means dry. Most deserts are found along the 30º latitude or in the center of the continents or in the rain shadow of large mountain ranges. •The temperatures will depend on the latitude of the desert. The farther from the Equator the colder they will be. •There are warm and cold arid climates. •Warm deserts have an average annual temperature above 18ºC with significant oscillations between day and night that can exceed 20ºC or more. Precipitation Seasons • Precipitation is •They don’t infrequent and have regular irregular. seasons. •Less than 150 mm per year.

Location Temperature Precipitation Seasons •On the edge of Arid climate areas. •The temperatures will depend on the latitude of the area. • Precipitation is infrequent and irregular. But they receive more precipitation than arid areas. •Precipitation may occur in «winter». •They don’t have regular seasons. Some difference between summer and winter.

Developed by María Jesús Campos Chusteacher Wikiteacher Thanks to «Climate Types for Kids»

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