Clean Sheet Data Model for Aviation Safety

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Information about Clean Sheet Data Model for Aviation Safety
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Published on October 2, 2008

Author: ahmad1957

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Clean Sheet Data Model for Aviation Safety: Briefing to OMG Transportation Domain Task Force:  Clean Sheet Data Model for Aviation Safety: Briefing to OMG Transportation Domain Task Force Rick Jordan, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center U.S. Dept. of Transportation/Research & Special Programs Administration Jan Popiel, CSC Corporation 7/10/2001 Danvers, MA Telephone: 617-494-2818 internet email: jordan@volpe.dot.gov Agenda:  Agenda Overview of the Task Data Difficulties Data Model Products Safety Data Events Hazard & Risk model Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training model Aircraft Identification, Categorization & Maintenance model Flight model Conclusion Part I - Overview Aviation Safety “Clean Sheet” Data Model:  Part I - Overview Aviation Safety “Clean Sheet” Data Model What is it? A formal set of data models and business rules being developed to promote a common understanding of the domain of aviation safety data Contains data entities from most parts of the aviation business domain “Clean” Unconstrained by today’s data structures and legacy practices Includes some structures not yet automated Part of FAA response to White House Commission on Aviation Safety & Security - 1997 Clean Sheet Objectives:  Clean Sheet Objectives Provides structures for system safety analysis Articulates a rationale for structuring aviation safety data for proactive risk assessment approach Provide a roadmap for expansion and renovation of aviation safety information and systems Supports planning for tools and systems through data requirements and design implications Promotes data sharing through standard data & references (taxonomies) Defines the relationship of source information to performance metrics Clean Sheet Customers:  Clean Sheet Customers Customers Who Have Benefited FAA Office of System Safety - Concepts, definitions, terms, business rules FAA Systems Builders Research Community engaged by FAA International & external aviation data system managers – CAST/ICAO, NTSB Customers Who Might Benefit Other parts of the FAA Handbook & Regulation Writers - definitions European & Canadian Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs) Airlines Aviation Clean Sheet Data Model Planned Subsets :  Aviation Clean Sheet Data Model Planned Subsets Hazard and Risk Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training Inspections & Performance Aircraft Identification, Configuration & Maintenance Flight Landing Facility Subset Airspace System Subset Program Schedule:  Program Schedule Month/Year Milestone of the Clean Sheet Data Model for Aviation Safety Jun-99 Started work Aug-99 Initial data model for proposed Aircraft Identification Standard Nov-99 First version of Hazard/Risk Data Model May-00 Revised version of Risk/Hazard model - May 2000 Dec-00 Organization, Personnel & Training Data Model Oct-00 First Version of Aircraft Categorization & Identification Data Model Jan-01 Aircraft Identification, Configuration & Maintenance Data Model May-01 Flight Data Model Aug-01 Landing Facility Data Model Sep-01 Airspace Data Model Slide8:  Information System Life Cycle Phase/Stage Data Model Initiation Phase Concept Phase Requirements Stage Design Stage Conceptual Data Model Logical Data Model Physical Data Base Design Initial Data Entities Scope High-level Data Entities Refine Scope and Create Conceptual Data Model Develop Physical Data Base Design Logical Data Model with Data Elements Revised Logical Data Model Add Data Entities and Data Elements From Process/ Data Analyses Revise Logical Data Model Based on Normalization Logical Data Model Planning Sources:  Sources FAA documentation FAA orders, procedures & policies, regulations, Handbooks, Manuals, etc. National Airspace System (NAS) information System documentation and data dictionaries Research and Published Information System Safety texts - Includes Wil Hammer & MIL-STD-882D FAA Technical Center Research publications Interviews and Working sessions with FAA staff engaged in aviation safety analysis IT Materials and Best Practices - generic data models Aviation Industry Documentation Flight Safety Foundation Eurocontrol information Aviation safety web sites - RTCA, NASA, GAIN, etc. CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team Agenda:  Agenda Overview of the Task Data Difficulties Data Model Products Safety Data Events Hazard & Risk model Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training model Aircraft Identification, Categorization & Maintenance model Flight model Conclusion Attributes of Quality Transportation information:  Attributes of Quality Transportation information Timeliness: up-to-date Accuracy Correct data definitions – unambiguous, clear, consistent Definitions are cross-functional for operational, tactical & strategic functions Completeness – missing values Relevant Obtainable Format and presentation of data is appropriate, understandable & re-useable Items in bold benefit from data modeling Data Difficulties:  Data Difficulties Difficulty having corporate definitions and unique identifiers of key entities like: Aircraft, Aircraft groupings, Facilities Airline Identifiers: FAA and BTS lists Redundant updating of lookup tables (reference tables) by 2 or more systems & across agencies Strategic & Tactical functions need: Compatible & quality data from many operational systems Ability to aggregate or summarize data from operational systems Impacted Tactical functions include: Aviation Safety Analysis: Incident Rate as a Percent of an Airline’s Operations Relating the work/outputs of CAAs to desired safety outcomes Estimating costs across the life cycle of an asset – How much have we spent on System Z since we did the research, acquired it and have had it installed for the past 3 years? Airbus A300 - Make/Model/Series:  Airbus A300 - Make/Model/Series FAA Aircraft Registry National Transportation Safety Board Airclaims (UK, private) Service Difficulty Reporting System Near Mid-Air Collision System Same System = Different Formats Different Systems = Different Formats As of 6/99 Agenda:  Agenda Overview of the Task Data Difficulties Data Model Products Safety Data Events Hazard & Risk model Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training model Aircraft Identification, Categorization & Maintenance model Flight model Conclusion Safety Event (accident, incident, etc.) Data Conceptual data model of circumstances and precursors:  Safety Event (accident, incident, etc.) Data Conceptual data model of circumstances and precursors Aircraft / Other Asset (event’s primary subject) e.g. aircraft instance, ATC asset Safety Event e.g. Accident, Incident - What happened? (big picture category) - When it happened? (service,phase,flight) Where it happened? (coordinates) Who it happened to? (operator) What aircraft (model) it happened to? (represents actual unplanned safety events or hypothetical event scenarios) Event Category e.g. runway incursion, CFIT, … Organization / Person and air carrier system elements (e.g. maintenance personnel) Phase of Flight Event Factor (events tree, causal factors, precursor hazards) - what aircraft/asset component failed what Failure Mode, Factor Category it is what operation / maintenance task it is who was involved (role rather than name) how it happened (preceding events) why (causal/contributing factor, hazard) Airport / ATC Facility Jan Popiel, May 29, 2001 of what subject when what where related to comprises Aircraft / Asset Type aircraft model (e.g. Boeing 747-200C) engine type/model (e.g. GE XY) other aircraft equipment / component ATC equipment type/model Hazard / Risk Factor Category human factor category technical failure by ATA code external environment (weather) is a is a how & why Role / Responsibility pilot, controller, inspector, mechanic, … who who who Reference Data (Dimensions & Taxonomies) What events happen? When events happen? Where events happen? operator for How & Why did events happen? what object related to what object involved in Failure Mode & Effects - severity likelihood / rate failure effects of is a Airspace Class categorizes codifies location of involved in Who was involved? What hazards exist? Airspace Structure Sector, Route, Fix, … embodied in How a thing / component breaks? where Safety Rule / Standard e.g. Visual Flight Rules concerns What controls/standards exist? comprises Aircraft / Other Asset Reference Data Operation/Service Type e.g. commercial, GA, … has involved in involved in has What tasks prevent failures? Flight of has Preventive Maintenance Requirement / Task (?) task frequency Notes::  Notes: Reference category data Color legend: Safety event data Aircraft / asset data Organization /Person data Aspects not covered: Which database/system the event or factor data came from. Safety Event Data:  Safety Event Data Definitions Safety Event– is an unplanned and undesired aviation accident or incident. It may exist for an aviation asset or aviation asset type/model Event Factor (includes hazard) – is a state, condition, or action that occurred during a Safety Event. It includes all events in a string making up an unplanned safety event – including corrective, negative, and normal aspects. Shows the “dimensions” of a safety event – the who, what, when, where, why & how Some of these dimensions are subject to standardization efforts for a common taxonomy or standard reference list of values Indicates the relationship & scope of each taxonomy effort Generalize-able to any safety event – applicable to aviation and other domains Hazard / Risk Data Model: Core Data Entities for Hazard Analysis & Risk Assessment:  Hazard / Risk Data Model: Core Data Entities for Hazard Analysis & Risk Assessment Safety Event Event Factor Hazard & Risk Data Model Value Added: Seven Fundamental Entities :  Hazard & Risk Data Model Value Added: Seven Fundamental Entities Safety/Unplanned Event: Accident, Incident, Hazard Scenario Includes scenarios for hazard identification Event Factor: Hazard, Precursor, Corrective action, Outcome, normal actions Event Factor Association: Causal Chain Risk Evaluation / Rating Likelihood & Severity Risk Mitigation Strategy: Safeguard, Safety Defense Event Taxonomy Hazard / Risk Factor Taxonomy Application: Incident:  Application: Incident NTSB Identification: DCA991A019 Scheduled 14 CFR 121 operation of DELTA AIRLINES Incident occurred DEC-06-98 at NEAR HAMPTON, NY Aircraft: Boeing 767, registration: UNK Injuries: 0 On December 6, 1998, about 2200 eastern standard time, Delta Airlines flight 66, a Boeing 767, and Caledonian Airways flight 5199 (CKT5199), a Lockheed L1011, were involved in a near midair collision approximately 10 miles south of Hampton, New York at 33,000 feet (FL330) mean sea level. Both flights were being handled by the Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center (Boston Center) According to the FAA, at 2145 the Boston Center computer display channel (CDC) failed and the direct access radar channel (DARC) equipment loss its ability to interface with the National Airspace System (NAS). Because of this, most of the aircraft identification, track, and flight plan data normally displayed on controllers’ radar displays, were unavailable. (Transponder beacon codes and Mode C altitude information continued to be displayed.) The radar controller accepted a handoff from New York Center on DAL66 level at FL330. The same radar controller then accepted a radar handoff on CKT5199 Level at FL330. The flights were on converging courses. The flight crew of DAL66 received a traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) resolution alert (RA) to descend, and the Flight crew of CKT5199 received a TCAS RA to climb. At 0300 UTC, the two airplanes passed each other with 1.5 miles horizontal and 900 feet vertical separation. The pilot of CKT5199 reported sighting DAL66 and said he would file a near midair condition report. Event Factors for Near Mid-Air Collision Delta 66:  Event Factors for Near Mid-Air Collision Delta 66 11. Delta 66 Approach 4. TCAS Alert 9. DARC Capability Loss 8. CDC Failure 10. Caledonian 5199 Approach 1. Near Mid-Air Collision 5. Loss Of Separation 6. Incorrect Navigation Directions 7. Loss of Radar Display 2.Evasive Action (Climb) 3.Evasive Action (Descend) Translation into Data Tables:  Translation into Data Tables Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training Data Model – Scope & Sample Entities:  Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training Data Model – Scope & Sample Entities Organization Org Relationship Person Aviation Involvement Certificate Certificate type Designator Aviation Involvement Aircraft Id Grouping Grouping Relationship Component Aircraft Instance Training Course Task/Skill Type Course Topic Airmen Certificate Position Type Inspection Inspection Plan Inspection Elements Insp. Results Action Taken Performance Safety goal Performance Measure Performance Target Performance Value Safety Taxonomies Safety Work Activity Certification Inspection Safety Activity Report Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training Data Model Value Added: Refined Basic Concepts/Entities:  Air Operator Organization, Personnel & Training Data Model Value Added: Refined Basic Concepts/Entities Organization: currently tracked via FAA’s Designator but needs to be more general than Air Operator and Agency Organization Involvement: allows multiple roles in aviation Organization Relationship: identifies relationships between Orgs. Hazard/Risk Taxonomies: need mapping for aggregation/analysis Many taxonomies: ACAT, ICAO, ATOS Air carrier system Related taxonomies to other safety factor classification schemes Inspection Plan: generalized for any inspection type Safety Criticality Ranking: modeled to be used both for driving inspection frequencies and implementation Inspection Conclusion: drives corrective activities Aircraft Identification Configuration & Maintenance Data model - Approach:  Aircraft Identification Configuration & Maintenance Data model - Approach Partly done for CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team on Aircraft Seeking a standard reference list of aircraft make, model, series Configuration control (Aircraft components such as engines) For individual aircraft (aircraft instances) and For asset types (such as an aircraft make) Minimum equipment list (MEL) Aircraft maintenance Maintenance task and their resource requirements Reliability and failure modes Aircraft Asset Data Model Fundamental Entities:  Aircraft Asset Data Model Fundamental Entities Aviation Asset Aircraft Airspace System Asset Aircraft Maintenance Asset Aviation Training Asset Other Aviation System Asset Asset Type / Model Aircraft Identification Grouping Engine Type Other Asset Type Maintenance Program Task Type/Procedure Definition Task Resource Requirement Operation/Support Task Documents used (such as maintenance manuals) Failure Mode/Anomaly Equipment Type List Slide27:  Aircraft Categorization and Identification Aircraft Identification Grouping # Grouping Id Aircraft Make-Model-Series -Manufacturer Grouping * Make o Model o Series o Manufacturer o Aircraft Popular Name o Amateur Built Flag Aircraft Instance # Aircraft Instance Id * MMS Grouping Id (FK) * Make (derived) * Model (derived) * Serial Number * Latest Registration Number * Effective From Date o Effective Until Date (and other attributes) Type Certificate Grouping Aircraft Grouping Association # Grouping Association Id * Grouping Association Type * Source Grouping Id (FK) * Target Grouping Id (FK) o Remarks Organization # Organization Id * Full Name * Short Name * Country Code * Effective From Date o Effective Until Date Aircraft Instance Other Categorization # Grouping Id (FK) # Aircraft Instance Id (FK) o Remarks Aircraft Grouping Structure Component o CNS Equipment Suffix Code Aircraft Instance Structure Component # Component Instance ID Aircraft Instance Legacy Identification # Aircraft Instance1 Id (FK) # Aircraft Instance2 Id (FK) o Remarks Component Type/Model source target Conceptual data model April 5, 2001 Organization Aircraft Involvement # Involvement Id * Role Type Code (function) * Effective From Date o Effective Until Date * Involvement Country Code o Remarks comprises comprises comprises comprises model for instance of was is embodied in embodied in is Aircraft Primary Characteristic * Aircraft Category o Aircraft Sub-Category * Number&Type of Engines o Unregulated Vehicle Type * Weight Category * Noise Level Stage * Landing Cert Category * Max Cert Takeoff Weight * Median Climb Rate * Median Descent Rate * En Route Speed Range * Take off Speed Range * Approach Speed Range ? Passenger/Cargo Flag has e.g. equivalent, parent/child, characterized by involved in involves for of involves Aircraft Type Designator Grouping * Type Designator * Climb Rate * Descent Rate Landing Gear Model Engine Model CNS Equipment Model Other Equipment Type new/old, preliminary/final Other Aircraft Type Grouping Organization Association # Org Association Id * Association Type * Source Org Id(FK) * Target Org Id(FK) o Remarks out of scope of the initial development phase manufactured by for for is is of Value Added: Selected Highlights:  Value Added: Selected Highlights Relationships to Failure Mode or Condition Type Business Rule: When an asset defect or condition is observed, then whenever possible the standardized failure mode or condition type should be identified (as its cause). Business Rule: A maintenance requirement may be defined for a particular failure mode or condition type. If a condition is met, then the maintenance steps need to be performed. Business Rule: A maintenance requirement should reference the aviation product category such as ATA Specification 100 code to identify a category of components that are maintained. All of the above supports analysis of past history for safety issues Facilitates aggregation of aviation safety information into different aircraft categories Flight Data Model:  Flight Data Model Incorporation of Flight event entities into the Clean Sheet Data Model Unplanned Events & Event Factors Risk Reduction/Corrective Measures Organizations Asset Type/Model ETMS information (tactical air traffic control system) Flight data recorder information Value Added: Selected Highlights:  Value Added: Selected Highlights Relationship between Flight Event and Event Factor There is a many to many relationship between Flight Events and Event Factors. Many flight events can be the source information for one event factor An event factor can involve several flight events because a safety analysis may be performed multiple times using different risk / hazard analysis methods Collaborative Information Exchanges can take place concerning an Unplanned Event (usually an observed air traffic control problem). A collaborative information exchange can result in a Safety Work Activity (such as further Risk Analysis Activity). A CDM Problem Identification Notice can be relevant to an Aviation Performance Metric Value. Landing Facility Data Model:  Landing Facility Data Model Underway through August Sources: Airport Certification Handbook Airport Master Records including changes to airports, runways, & facilities Airport Improvement Handbook ARP organizational information & goals Various ARP forms ARP Policies, Orders, etc. Runway Safety Area Inventory System Requirements document(s) for ARP systems Any other suggested sources? Direction :  Direction Planned work on Airspace Data Model: Aug/Sept. Other Coordination and Communication Steps Information on our Data Modeling work can be found at: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/data/info.html Part III - Conclusion:  Part III - Conclusion Provides structures for system safety analysis Articulates a rationale for structuring aviation safety data for proactive risk assessment approach Provide a roadmap for expansion and renovation of aviation safety information and systems Supports planning for tools and systems through data requirements and design implications Promotes data sharing through standard data & references (taxonomies) Defines the relationship of source information to performance metrics Contact Rick Jordan, Volpe Center Jan Popiel, CSC Appendix:  Appendix Introduction to Data Modeling Concepts and Graphical Notation Basic Concepts of Data Modeling:  Basic Concepts of Data Modeling Entity A person, place, thing, concept, or event about which an organization wishes to collect, keep & process information Relationship An association between two entities established to represent their structural, causal, and integrity dependencies Attribute An item of information describing and entity (it’s property) Business rules mostly represented by relationships Simple Example:  Simple Example Two entities: Flight and Aircraft Relationships: A Flight is scheduled for one aircraft An Aircraft flies many flights Flight Aircraft How to read an Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram:  How to read an Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram Program Number Program Name Program Description Project Number Project Name Project Description Approval Date Entity Name Attributes Relationships Each entity has the potential to be implemented physically as a database table. Each attribute can become a physical data element. Line Item No. Sub Line Item No Amount Line Item No. Amount one many Program Project Underlined Attributes are potential primary keys Budget Line Budget Sub-line

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