classical rome

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Published on October 29, 2007

Author: Davidson

Source: authorstream.com

Ancient Rome BCE-CE De nobis fabula narratur:  Ancient Rome BCE-CE De nobis fabula narratur “The Romans knew how to govern people, establish legal structures and construct roads that took them to the ends of their known world” Geography- Locus-Locus-Locus:  Geography- Locus-Locus-Locus Middle of the Mediterranean Larger and more arable land than Greece- mts north and south River valleys- Po in the North, Tiber in middle of boot Rome - inland accessible by boat- defensible,on “Seven Hills” Origins of Rome:  Origins of Rome Legend: Romulus and Remus raised by she-wolf 733bce traced boundaries with plow Later: Virgil’s Aeneus, hero of Troy, roams the Med looking for a home Reality: Etruscans unsure of origin used iron, bronze and silver Rome and Latins under rule of king beginning fear of kings, rebelled invaded by Gaul 390 BCE Steps to Unification:  Steps to Unification Etruscans and Gauls squeezed out by Latins 290- conquered central Italy then Samnites in South 265 took over Greek city states key- staying power of army, won over conquered people- become Roman citizens Meanwhile, back in Rome, the importance of citizenship:  Meanwhile, back in Rome, the importance of citizenship gradual struggle between the patrician and plebeian classes 2 consuls and Senate made up of patricians popular assemblies established with a representative tribune- veto power 450 BCE 12 Tables Roman Law codified Result- increase of privileges for plebes The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE:  The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE Major rival in Med- Phoenician Carthage First Punic War 264-42- copied ships and corvus out of Sicily Second Punic war 218-202- Hannibal 216 Battle of Camnae Third- treaty infringement trumped up Cato’s speech Carthago delenda est” Carthage plowed and sowed with salt Result Rome now the POWER in the Mediterranean 8 Struggles Continue in the Republic:  8 Struggles Continue in the Republic Graft, corruption, struggle between patrician and plebeians Gracchi Brothers Tiberias and Gaius Marius consul 6 x Sulla- general seized Rome in 82 BCE restored power to Senate set precedent Republic’s Last Gasp:  Republic’s Last Gasp First Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus Julius Caesar challenges the Senate crosses the Rubicon 47 BCE virtual ruler, increased Senate to 900 44 BCE assassinated, Second Triumvirate Octavius, Marc Antony, Lepidus Battle of Actium 31 BCE End of an era The Roman Empire:  The Roman Empire Caesar Augustus- purpose “to restore the republic” 27 BC Augustus become “First Citizen” Princeps ended strife- beginning of Pax Romanae tried to impact life- morality, building sculpture- deified him, literature as well Consolidation- of power/ Senate limited SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus- banner The Roman World:  The Roman World Ever expanding- see maps- spread Pax Romanae Politically - emperor/ dictatorship Extended Roman citizenship as they spread The Roman family- gradual less influence for fathers family strong unit- run like the state women become more independent- socially and ownership politically active as wives of emperors- Livia, wife of CA The Roman World (cont):  The Roman World (cont) Golden Age- literature Horace, Virgil, Ovid and Livy Religion- state religion, Roman gods reflected Greek emperor became “divine” connection to gods tolerant of other religions Mithras, Persian god of light Christianity-”And there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus” persecutions not as many as thought- made stronger sometimes combined with others- e.g. Celtic gods Slavery in the Roman World:  Slavery in the Roman World Important to building projects and way of life Conquests supplied slaves so came from all over Not related to ethnicity or skin color Greek slaves educated and highly prized Rebellions like Sparticus 73BCE occurred- Crassius put down, crucified slaves and held a 10 day party for Rome Slaves gradually won freedom and numbers decreased The Roman Builders- All over the Empire:  The Roman Builders- All over the Empire Amazing accomplishments- Roads that still last Aqueducts- bringing water to every important city Temples for the gods- copied Greek style- massive Forum- public area of the city- center- oration etc. Theaters- for entertainment- drama Coliseums- more fun, fights, gladiators, animals Baths- public places- series of rooms dif temps The Roman Emperors- the Good, Bad and Ugly:  The Roman Emperors- the Good, Bad and Ugly Good- Marcus Aurelius-phil “citizen of the world” Calm and unified- Trajan, Hadrian, walls and rebels Bad- Caligula- named horse “consul”, Commodus, fought gladiators with blunted weapons, Nero, mass murder- inc his mother, pregnant wife, brother Many later emperors were generals- most powerful could become emperor The Roman legacy- writing and the law:  The Roman legacy- writing and the law alphabet- should look familiar to us Romans wrote down everything- very literate, passed on to use use every day, alma mater, alter ego, per capita, vice versa, a.m/, p.m., RIP ,list goes on ad infinitum some consider the statutes and case law most important legacy- took idea that a written law can protect one person from another- put it into practice- Because it’s the laws means something to us- not necessarily in other cultures. tried to appeal to people through argument- idea of people deciding magistrates important in Rome- e.g. of Apostle Paul The Roman Provinces- still impacted:  The Roman Provinces- still impacted Gaul- France today- many roads, aqueducts, theaters The Rhine- no border- Trier and Wiesbaden Britain- difficult place, Bath and Hadrian’s wall Palestine- Masada- rebellion and magnificent cities like Baalbek Africa- riches of Egypt and the granary of the Empire Why a Roman “Fall”:  Why a Roman “Fall” Instability caused by no real plan of succession Trouble on the borders Morally bankrupt? Division of Empire- Diocletian Later Constantine- new capitol- Constantinople- Christianity and Rome:  Christianity and Rome Helped Christianity spread- communication Appeal- unrest, questioning of polytheism explained spiritual aspects, Christ’s teachings emphasis of eternal life community exclusive (mystery religion) Persecution- under Nero, blamed for fire mostly tolerant, Christians refused to worship state Effect- spread slowly- letters formed NT officially tolerated 313 Edict of Milan The Barbarians at the Gates:  The Barbarians at the Gates Pressure from Germanic tribes looking for safety Huns pressured the Visogoths-410- ran into the empire Vandals- 455- sacked Rome Series of invasions- physical damage, but also intellectual established German kingdoms in West- illiterate,look at art The East survives- becomes Byzantium- keeps the learning from the ancient world

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