Classical Greece

50 %
50 %
Information about Classical Greece

Published on July 9, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Deacries Greece in its Heroic and Classical Phases, including Drama, Philosophy, and Aesthetics

The Classical Greeks The Hellenic Roots of Western Culture

Classic: Three Meanings “ First rate,” or “the best of its kind” applies to music, vintage cars, or films—implying enduring quality The characteristics of a civilization, one that has enduring significance on later civilizations. The stylistic features of a node of expression governed by principles of clarity, harmony, balance, simplicity (moderation), and refinement The classic civilizations are so in all three senses of the term

“ First rate,” or “the best of its kind” applies to music, vintage cars, or films—implying enduring quality

The characteristics of a civilization, one that has enduring significance on later civilizations.

The stylistic features of a node of expression governed by principles of clarity, harmony, balance, simplicity (moderation), and refinement

The classic civilizations are so in all three senses of the term

The Classic Civilizations The Greek or Hellenic: That which reached its height in the fifth century BCE The Hellenistic or “Greek-like” in which a Macedonian named Alexander spread its influence into Asia and Egypt (ca 300 BCE) The Roman in two phases: The Republic (509-31 BCE) Empire (31 BCE-476 CE)

The Greek or Hellenic: That which reached its height in the fifth century BCE

The Hellenistic or “Greek-like” in which a Macedonian named Alexander spread its influence into Asia and Egypt (ca 300 BCE)

The Roman in two phases:

The Republic (509-31 BCE)

Empire (31 BCE-476 CE)

Minoan Civilization (2000-1400 BCE) Site of a palace and labyrinthine maze on the Island of Crete, south of mainland Greece. Named after King Minos whose minotaur—half man and half bull—was kept in the labyrinth and fed Athenian youths The minotaur is killed by the Athenian hero Theseus, freeing Athens from his rule.

Site of a palace and labyrinthine maze on the Island of Crete, south of mainland Greece.

Named after King Minos whose minotaur—half man and half bull—was kept in the labyrinth and fed Athenian youths

The minotaur is killed by the Athenian hero Theseus, freeing Athens from his rule.

Minoan Site Archaeological evidence indicates the site was involved in seagoing trade with the Phoenicians, based in Carthage of North Africa A three-story palace build around a courtyard Absence of fortress walls indicate the kingdom felt secure on this island. Frescos indicate the sport of bull-vaulting, still practiced in Portugal Bare-breasted woman with snakes; may indicate fertility ritual with either a goddess or a priestess.

Archaeological evidence indicates the site was involved in seagoing trade with the Phoenicians, based in Carthage of North Africa

A three-story palace build around a courtyard

Absence of fortress walls indicate the kingdom felt secure on this island.

Frescos indicate the sport of bull-vaulting, still practiced in Portugal

Bare-breasted woman with snakes; may indicate fertility ritual with either a goddess or a priestess.

Linear B Script Linear B Script is the first phonetic script in Europe Based on syllables; each symbol represents a syllable rather than a speech sound Vowel is the peak of a syllable

Linear B Script is the first phonetic script in Europe

Based on syllables; each symbol represents a syllable rather than a speech sound

Vowel is the peak of a syllable

Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1200 BCE) More of a militaristic peoples with warships vying for control of the Eastern Mediterranean Site includes heavily fortified walls expected of a militaristic society Death mask is probably that of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae who led the Achaeans against Troy Grave of Agamemnon includes jewels and other precious grave goods The Mycenaeans attacked Troy (Ilion) around 1200 BCE, resulting in a 10-year war This sets the stage of Homer’s two epics, The Iliad recounting the last days of the Trojan War The second is The Odyssey , of the obstacles to Odysseus’s (Ulysses) homecoming after the Trojan war.

More of a militaristic peoples with warships vying for control of the Eastern Mediterranean

Site includes heavily fortified walls expected of a militaristic society

Death mask is probably that of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae who led the Achaeans against Troy

Grave of Agamemnon includes jewels and other precious grave goods

The Mycenaeans attacked Troy (Ilion) around 1200 BCE, resulting in a 10-year war

This sets the stage of Homer’s two epics, The Iliad recounting the last days of the Trojan War

The second is The Odyssey , of the obstacles to Odysseus’s (Ulysses) homecoming after the Trojan war.

The Heroic Age (1200-750 CE) Mycenae was conquered in 1200 CE by the Dorians whose iron weaponry proved superior The Homeric epics were passed down by oral tradition for 300 years before being transcribed and 300 more before being reaching their present form Little is known about Homer himself, except that if he existed, he was blind Represents the culmination of a long tradition of oral history The two epics represent a national symbol of present-day Greece

Mycenae was conquered in 1200 CE by the Dorians whose iron weaponry proved superior

The Homeric epics were passed down by oral tradition for 300 years before being transcribed and 300 more before being reaching their present form

Little is known about Homer himself, except that if he existed, he was blind

Represents the culmination of a long tradition of oral history

The two epics represent a national symbol of present-day Greece

Iliad: Paris’s Choice Eris, the Goddess of Discord, throws an apple with the inscription “To The Fairest” in a crowd at a wedding. Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, Hera, the wife of Zeus, and Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love, Sex, Beauty, and Fertility, vie for the apple They agree to allow Paris, a moral (and Trojan) to make the judgment. Athena promises victory against the Greeks; Hera promises dominion over the known world; Aphrodite promises him the love of a beautiful women Paris gives gives the golden apple to Aphrodite The spurned goddesses, Hera and Athena, conspire with other deities for revenge. Paris kidnaps Helen, Menaleus, her husbands, forms an alliance with other Acheans to get his wife fack

Eris, the Goddess of Discord, throws an apple with the inscription “To The Fairest” in a crowd at a wedding.

Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, Hera, the wife of Zeus, and Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love, Sex, Beauty, and Fertility, vie for the apple

They agree to allow Paris, a moral (and Trojan) to make the judgment.

Athena promises victory against the Greeks; Hera promises dominion over the known world; Aphrodite promises him the love of a beautiful women Paris gives gives the golden apple to Aphrodite

The spurned goddesses, Hera and Athena, conspire with other deities for revenge.

Paris kidnaps Helen, Menaleus, her husbands, forms an alliance with other Acheans to get his wife fack

The Iliad: The Battle of Troy Through an alliance of gods and mortals, war breaks out between the “Achaeans” and the Trojans of Troy, a commercial center in Asia Minor (now Turkey) The Iliad is set in the last days of the Trojan war The war end when the Trojan Horse, containing Achaean solders, taken to be a gift, is haled onto the fortress, and the Acheans slaughter the Trojans in a ruse.

Through an alliance of gods and mortals, war breaks out between the “Achaeans” and the Trojans of Troy, a commercial center in Asia Minor (now Turkey)

The Iliad is set in the last days of the Trojan war

The war end when the Trojan Horse, containing Achaean solders, taken to be a gift, is haled onto the fortress, and the Acheans slaughter the Trojans in a ruse.

Iliad: Achilles as Central Character The central figure of the Iliad is Achilles, a powerful warrior who at first refuses to join the Achaeans He consents only after a close friend of his, Patroclus, is killed in battle by Hector, the chieftain of the Trojans Though half-god, half man, he has a flaw: his heel which his mother Thetis held while dipping into the river Styx, which rendered him invulnerable: Except for the heel, which any weapon could prnetrate. Note the penetration of the arrow in his heel.

The central figure of the Iliad is Achilles, a powerful warrior who at first refuses to join the Achaeans

He consents only after a close friend of his, Patroclus, is killed in battle by Hector, the chieftain of the Trojans

Though half-god, half man, he has a flaw: his heel which his mother Thetis held while dipping into the river Styx, which rendered him invulnerable:

Except for the heel, which any weapon could prnetrate.

Note the penetration of the arrow in his heel.

Iliad: The Main Themes The theme of Achilles that recurs in Greek thought: Selfhood vs. community responsibility We see it later in Socrates’s refusal to escape after being condemned to death Heroic act to prove virtue or excellence ( arete has both connotations) Both God and Man displays a range of human emotions: anger, love, grief (over loss of friend)

The theme of Achilles that recurs in Greek thought:

Selfhood vs. community responsibility

We see it later in Socrates’s refusal to escape after being condemned to death

Heroic act to prove virtue or excellence ( arete has both connotations)

Both God and Man displays a range of human emotions: anger, love, grief (over loss of friend)

Odyssey: Frustrated Homecoming Odysseus encounters obstacles—adventures—while trying to sail home to Ithaca after the war On one occasion, he ix within sight of Ithaca when a strong wind blow the ship out to open sea. He has to navigate the ship between Scylla, a monster perched on a rock, and Charybdis, the monster lurking in a large whirlpool Allows himself to listen to the Sirens, while tied to the mast and the men rowing with earplugs, so they can hear neither him, nor then; otherwise the ship would have been lost to the rocks In the end, he does arrive home, and he slaughters the suitors trying to woo his wife Penelope because of his long absence.

Odysseus encounters obstacles—adventures—while trying to sail home to Ithaca after the war

On one occasion, he ix within sight of Ithaca when a strong wind blow the ship out to open sea.

He has to navigate the ship between Scylla, a monster perched on a rock, and Charybdis, the monster lurking in a large whirlpool

Allows himself to listen to the Sirens, while tied to the mast and the men rowing with earplugs, so they can hear neither him, nor then; otherwise the ship would have been lost to the rocks

In the end, he does arrive home, and he slaughters the suitors trying to woo his wife Penelope because of his long absence.

The Principal Gods in the Greek/Roman Pantheon Zeus (Rom. Jupiter or Jove): The head of the pantheon of gods Hera (Juno): Queen of the Gods Ares (Mars): God of war Aphrodite (Venus): Goddess of (erotic) love, beauty, Athena (Minerva): Goddess of wisdom—and war Eros (Amor/Cupid): God of (erotic) love, often portrayed as an infant Hades (Pluto): God of the Underworld

Zeus (Rom. Jupiter or Jove): The head of the pantheon of gods

Hera (Juno): Queen of the Gods

Ares (Mars): God of war

Aphrodite (Venus): Goddess of (erotic) love, beauty,

Athena (Minerva): Goddess of wisdom—and war

Eros (Amor/Cupid): God of (erotic) love, often portrayed as an infant

Hades (Pluto): God of the Underworld

Other Gods of the Greek/Roman Pantheon Demeter (Ceres): Goddess of Agriculture/Grain Persephone (Proserpina): Goddess of the Underworld Apollo, Helios (Phoebus): God of the Sun Hephaestus (Vulcan): God of metallurgy, fire Heracles (Hercules): God of strength, courage Artemis (Diana): Goddess of the hunt, the moon Hermes (Mercury): Messenger of the gods Nike (both): Goddess of Victory Poseidon (Neptune): God of the sea Hestia (Vesta): Goddess of the hearth, domestic

Demeter (Ceres): Goddess of Agriculture/Grain

Persephone (Proserpina): Goddess of the Underworld

Apollo, Helios (Phoebus): God of the Sun

Hephaestus (Vulcan): God of metallurgy, fire

Heracles (Hercules): God of strength, courage

Artemis (Diana): Goddess of the hunt, the moon

Hermes (Mercury): Messenger of the gods

Nike (both): Goddess of Victory

Poseidon (Neptune): God of the sea

Hestia (Vesta): Goddess of the hearth, domestic

Gods According to Greek Theology Origin myth: Zeus, angered by human evil, destroyed humankind by flood Deucalion (Greek Noah), constructs boat for himself and his wife “ Bones” of Gaia thrown overboard and new humans, first of whom is Hellen (ancestors of Hellenes or Greeks), spring from the rocks

Origin myth: Zeus, angered by human evil, destroyed humankind by flood

Deucalion (Greek Noah), constructs boat for himself and his wife

“ Bones” of Gaia thrown overboard and new humans, first of whom is Hellen (ancestors of Hellenes or Greeks), spring from the rocks

The Humanlike Qualities of the Gods The immortals show all the human emotions: they are amorous, capricious, quarrelsome They take sides in human wars (as they do in the Iliad ) They live among humans, atop Mount Olympus Gods seduce mortal women (Leda and the Swan, who is Zeus), interfere in human affairs, and much else They set forth no clear principles of moral conduct Gods are beings to curry favor from by animal sacrifice Oracles (like the one at Delphi) are sources of prophecy and mystical wisdom

The immortals show all the human emotions: they are amorous, capricious, quarrelsome

They take sides in human wars (as they do in the Iliad )

They live among humans, atop Mount Olympus

Gods seduce mortal women (Leda and the Swan, who is Zeus), interfere in human affairs, and much else

They set forth no clear principles of moral conduct

Gods are beings to curry favor from by animal sacrifice

Oracles (like the one at Delphi) are sources of prophecy and mystical wisdom

Greek City States: Principal Sites

Greek City States: Economic Basis A rocky environment allowed little agriculture Best strategy: to grow crops of high value for trade—olives (for the oil) and grapes (for the wine) Became master craftsmen of metallurgy, textiles, pottery, and other arts Rocky terrain allowed for little overland trade Therefore, they continued to trade via maritime routes Law of comparative advantage illustrated here: crafted goods, oil, and wine for basic foodstuffs like grain from the Near East

A rocky environment allowed little agriculture

Best strategy: to grow crops of high value for trade—olives (for the oil) and grapes (for the wine)

Became master craftsmen of metallurgy, textiles, pottery, and other arts

Rocky terrain allowed for little overland trade

Therefore, they continued to trade via maritime routes

Law of comparative advantage illustrated here: crafted goods, oil, and wine for basic foodstuffs like grain from the Near East

Greek City States: The Persian Wars Autonomous city states arose in the mainland Persian expanded westward and annexed Ionia, a region in Asia Minor When Ionians revolted, other city states joined in At the Battle of Marathon of 499 BCE, an army of 11,000 men defeated a Persian army twice that number The Greeks proceeded to develop an navy and at the Battle of Salamis, defeated the Persian armada

Autonomous city states arose in the mainland

Persian expanded westward and annexed Ionia, a region in Asia Minor

When Ionians revolted, other city states joined in

At the Battle of Marathon of 499 BCE, an army of 11,000 men defeated a Persian army twice that number

The Greeks proceeded to develop an navy and at the Battle of Salamis, defeated the Persian armada

City States: Emergence of Democracy in Athens Initially Oligarchic Rule Reforms by Solon: abolition of debt slavery Formation of the Popular Assembly by 550 BCE, comprising all Greek citizenry It operated alongside the Council of Five Hundred and Council of Ten Generals Popular Assembly acquired the right to legislate Involved direct participation, not representatives Women, non-landowners, and slaves still had no such rights Success probably attributed to low population: 40,000 eligible, probably 5000 actually participated in open-air market (agora) forums.

Initially Oligarchic Rule

Reforms by Solon: abolition of debt slavery

Formation of the Popular Assembly by 550 BCE, comprising all Greek citizenry

It operated alongside the Council of Five Hundred and Council of Ten Generals

Popular Assembly acquired the right to legislate

Involved direct participation, not representatives

Women, non-landowners, and slaves still had no such rights

Success probably attributed to low population: 40,000 eligible, probably 5000 actually participated in open-air market (agora) forums.

City States: Sparta Contrasted with Athens Elite of five, though elected, saw themselves as rulers incarnate of the gods Male citizens from seven years upward were trained as soldiers Physical labor done by helots, prisoners captured in frequent local wars. Spartan women, expected to live out ideals of warrior culture, were allowed more freedom than their Athenian counterparts Nevertheless, strict order allowed for little creativity

Elite of five, though elected, saw themselves as rulers incarnate of the gods

Male citizens from seven years upward were trained as soldiers

Physical labor done by helots, prisoners captured in frequent local wars.

Spartan women, expected to live out ideals of warrior culture, were allowed more freedom than their Athenian counterparts

Nevertheless, strict order allowed for little creativity

Athens under Pericles Pericles: An aristocrat who nevertheless believed in a democratic form of government His foreign policies were also high-handed Part of the Delian league, he collected monies for a collective defense against the Persians Then he appropriate them for Athens to build the Athenian temples demolished by the Persians He also tried to dominate the commercial policy of league members

Pericles: An aristocrat who nevertheless believed in a democratic form of government

His foreign policies were also high-handed

Part of the Delian league, he collected monies for a collective defense against the Persians

Then he appropriate them for Athens to build the Athenian temples demolished by the Persians

He also tried to dominate the commercial policy of league members

Peloponnesian Wars These acts led to a war between Athens and an alliance dominated by Sparta The war brought to an end the so-called Golden Age of Athens Eventually, this would bring forth the imperialistic forays of Alexander the Great It would also generate the Hellenistic Age by which Greek philosophy, literature, and art and architectural styles were spread throughout much of the known world.

These acts led to a war between Athens and an alliance dominated by Sparta

The war brought to an end the so-called Golden Age of Athens

Eventually, this would bring forth the imperialistic forays of Alexander the Great

It would also generate the Hellenistic Age by which Greek philosophy, literature, and art and architectural styles were spread throughout much of the known world.

Two Historians: Herodotus and Thucydides Herodotus: First known historian who combined keen observation with critical judgment Did make errors, such as his opinion that non-Egyptian slaves built the pyramid Thucydides: Wrote a detailed account of the Peloponnesian wars between Athens and an alliance dominated by Sparta, which proved disastrous for Athens He himself was a general in the conflict, so that he is a primary source, one who made the actual observations

Herodotus: First known historian who combined keen observation with critical judgment

Did make errors, such as his opinion that non-Egyptian slaves built the pyramid

Thucydides:

Wrote a detailed account of the Peloponnesian wars between Athens and an alliance dominated by Sparta, which proved disastrous for Athens

He himself was a general in the conflict, so that he is a primary source, one who made the actual observations

Greek Drama: Overview Characters were all played by men. The structure comprised a stage, rather small, and the seating for the audience, which were levels of stairlike seats The chorus played an important role of informing the sequence of events.

Characters were all played by men.

The structure comprised a stage, rather small, and the seating for the audience, which were levels of stairlike seats

The chorus played an important role of informing the sequence of events.

Structure of Drama Setting: The site of the play and its context Rising Action: The events that lead to a crisis between those involved in a conflict Climax: The moment of high intensity, usually the crisis in which the outcome can go one way or another Denouement: The conclusion of the play, usually involving resolution of the conflict. Whether the play is a tragedy or comedy determines the outcome Deus ex Machina: The device whereby a seemingly irresolvable conflict is resolved by a God who is lowered by a lift (the machine) whose command determines the outcome. (Modern: the Cavalry arrives just in time to expel the Indians)

Setting: The site of the play and its context

Rising Action: The events that lead to a crisis between those involved in a conflict

Climax: The moment of high intensity, usually the crisis in which the outcome can go one way or another

Denouement: The conclusion of the play, usually involving resolution of the conflict. Whether the play is a tragedy or comedy determines the outcome

Deus ex Machina: The device whereby a seemingly irresolvable conflict is resolved by a God who is lowered by a lift (the machine) whose command determines the outcome.

(Modern: the Cavalry arrives just in time to expel the Indians)

Characters in a Play Every play has a conflict or a crisis. Protagonist: The hero or main character of the play Antagonist: The principal opponent to the protagonist Chorus in Greek Plays: Those who respond to the lines of the protagonist and the antagonists and fill in the details missing in the dialogue Audience: The watchers of the play, but they may also participate in the dialogue.

Every play has a conflict or a crisis.

Protagonist: The hero or main character of the play

Antagonist: The principal opponent to the protagonist

Chorus in Greek Plays: Those who respond to the lines of the protagonist and the antagonists and fill in the details missing in the dialogue

Audience: The watchers of the play, but they may also participate in the dialogue.

Types of Greek Drama Tragedy: A work with tragic consequences for the hero. The hero is usually a noble, often one who has accomplished great things. But he has some defect (see tragic flaw) That brings him to ruin at last Comedy: A work, usually with happy endings Only later did it become identified with amusement Often a work with realistic ends.

Tragedy: A work with tragic consequences for the hero.

The hero is usually a noble, often one who has accomplished great things.

But he has some defect (see tragic flaw)

That brings him to ruin at last

Comedy: A work, usually with happy endings

Only later did it become identified with amusement

Often a work with realistic ends.

Greek Tragedy Hubris: Tragic Flaw The hero is a noble He is a man (almost always a man) of some accomplishment) But he has some defect That defect proves destructive to the hero. Catharsis: the cleansing of the soul brought about by witnessing a demise Tragic Waste

Hubris: Tragic Flaw

The hero is a noble

He is a man (almost always a man) of some accomplishment)

But he has some defect

That defect proves destructive to the hero.

Catharsis: the cleansing of the soul brought about by witnessing a demise

Tragic Waste

Case Study: Oedipus the King by Sophocles Oedipus is the son of Laius, the king of Thebes, and of Jocasta. When born, he receives a prophesy that he will slay his father and marry his mother. The father has his boy’s feet pierced, and orders a shepherd to leave him on a hillside to die. Polybus, the shepherd, instead rears the child as his own. When, as a man, he receives this prophecy, he leaves the shepherd out of fear it might come true. He travels to Thebes, the most distant place from the site The theme underlying this effort is that it is folly to outwit the Fates.

Oedipus is the son of Laius, the king of Thebes, and of Jocasta.

When born, he receives a prophesy that he will slay his father and marry his mother.

The father has his boy’s feet pierced, and orders a shepherd to leave him on a hillside to die.

Polybus, the shepherd, instead rears the child as his own.

When, as a man, he receives this prophecy, he leaves the shepherd out of fear it might come true.

He travels to Thebes, the most distant place from the site

The theme underlying this effort is that it is folly to outwit the Fates.

Oedipus: The Patricide While traveling, Oedipus meets an arrogant man They argues over the right of way on a narrow road The dispute gets out of hand Oedipus kills the man Guess who the man is Laius is the man, Oedipus’s father

While traveling, Oedipus meets an arrogant man

They argues over the right of way on a narrow road

The dispute gets out of hand

Oedipus kills the man

Guess who the man is

Laius is the man, Oedipus’s father

The Sphinx and Her Riddle At the gates of Thebes, he encounters the Sphinx, who has been terrorizing Thebes for year The Sphinx has waylayed people, ask a riddle, and murders them all for their failure to give the right answer The riddle: what walks on four in the morning On two at noon, and On three at night? Your turn: got a good answer?

At the gates of Thebes, he encounters the Sphinx, who has been terrorizing Thebes for year

The Sphinx has waylayed people, ask a riddle, and murders them all for their failure to give the right answer

The riddle: what walks on four in the morning

On two at noon, and

On three at night?

Your turn: got a good answer?

Oedipus’s Answer His answer: “man” He crawls on all fours in the morning (of life as a toddler) Walks on two at noon (maturity) Walks on three in the evening (a cane, at old age) She screams, falls to the ground with a thud, and rots away with decay and vultures

His answer: “man”

He crawls on all fours in the morning (of life as a toddler)

Walks on two at noon (maturity)

Walks on three in the evening (a cane, at old age)

She screams, falls to the ground with a thud, and rots away with decay and vultures

Oedipus Become King and Marries his Mother The grateful Thebians award him with the kinship And with the hand of Jocasta to be his wife In so doing, he fulfils the prophecy that he will marry his mother. The Gods, angered by his incest, send a plague to the city After siring and bearing four children, Oedipus is told by the blind prophet Tiresias that he is the cause of the plague. In his pride, he refuses to believe the prophet, thinking his rival Creon, Jocasta’s brother, has set him up to this.

The grateful Thebians award him with the kinship

And with the hand of Jocasta to be his wife

In so doing, he fulfils the prophecy that he will marry his mother.

The Gods, angered by his incest, send a plague to the city

After siring and bearing four children, Oedipus is told by the blind prophet Tiresias that he is the cause of the plague.

In his pride, he refuses to believe the prophet, thinking his rival Creon, Jocasta’s brother, has set him up to this.

Curse of Oedipus Rex The chorus fills the audience in on the details of the events A messenger conveys the news of the shepherd Polybus’s death and adds that he was only Oedipus’s adopted father. Jocasta discovers the truth in the conversation, runs off the stage and hangs herself The truth come slowly to Oedipus; he takes the brooch from his dead wife and blinds himself

The chorus fills the audience in on the details of the events

A messenger conveys the news of the shepherd Polybus’s death and adds that he was only Oedipus’s adopted father.

Jocasta discovers the truth in the conversation, runs off the stage and hangs herself

The truth come slowly to Oedipus; he takes the brooch from his dead wife and blinds himself

Departure of Oedipus Rex; Fate of Antigone He leaves Thebes with his daughter Antigone Another play portrays Antigone herself, his daughter/sister After Oedipus’s death, she returns to Thebes When Creon, now king, decrees she cannot give her brother Polynices the rites of burial at his death, she does so anyway For her defiance, she is sealed in a cave to slowly suffocate. She commits suicide rather than suffer this fate

He leaves Thebes with his daughter Antigone

Another play portrays Antigone herself, his daughter/sister

After Oedipus’s death, she returns to Thebes

When Creon, now king, decrees she cannot give her brother Polynices the rites of burial at his death, she does so anyway

For her defiance, she is sealed in a cave to slowly suffocate.

She commits suicide rather than suffer this fate

Incest Tabu Definition: A rule that forbids copulation between two persons of defined relationships Primary kin: parent-child, siblings Father-daughter Mother-son Brother sister Exception: Egyptian, Inca, Hawaiian Allowed only in royal line: “purity”

Definition: A rule that forbids copulation between two persons of defined relationships

Primary kin: parent-child, siblings

Father-daughter

Mother-son

Brother sister

Exception: Egyptian, Inca, Hawaiian

Allowed only in royal line: “purity”

Biological (Genetic Explanation) Fears of inbreeding deters incest Lower intelligence (e.g. Down syndrome) Birth defects: Hemophilia Anomalous characteristics Assumptions Individuals have facts of life straight Defect attributed to inbreeding No close marriages

Fears of inbreeding deters incest

Lower intelligence (e.g. Down syndrome)

Birth defects:

Hemophilia

Anomalous characteristics

Assumptions

Individuals have facts of life straight

Defect attributed to inbreeding

No close marriages

Biological (Genetic): Shortcomings Connection between copulation and childbirth often not made Rapan (Easter) Islanders: woman is fertile during menstruation Other explanation may explain childbirth (witchcraft, evil spirit in womb) Defect may not show up for generations Widespread cross-cousin marriage also entail inbreeding: few birth defects

Connection between copulation and childbirth often not made

Rapan (Easter) Islanders: woman is fertile during menstruation

Other explanation may explain childbirth (witchcraft, evil spirit in womb)

Defect may not show up for generations

Widespread cross-cousin marriage also entail inbreeding: few birth defects

Other Tragic Dramatists Aeschylus: The first playwright in the Western World Known for the Orestian trilogy, which detail the horrors that befell the House of Atreus This trilogy set the pattern for other tragedies. Euripides: Had the reputation of a freethinker and was highly unpopular in his time. Wrote 92 plays in his lifetime of which 18 are still known. Among the plays: The Trojan Women (the aftermath of the war); Hercules; Orestes (Medusa’s killer); and Medea (murderess of an abusive father).

Aeschylus: The first playwright in the Western World

Known for the Orestian trilogy, which detail the horrors that befell the House of Atreus

This trilogy set the pattern for other tragedies.

Euripides: Had the reputation of a freethinker and was highly unpopular in his time.

Wrote 92 plays in his lifetime of which 18 are still known.

Among the plays: The Trojan Women (the aftermath of the war); Hercules; Orestes (Medusa’s killer); and Medea (murderess of an abusive father).

Philosophy in Hellenic Greece Pre-Greek Philosophers: The stuff that unified the reality we perceive—what is everything made of The Sophists: The first relativists: “How do we know what we know? Socrates: First (through Plato) to argue for an unchanging body of truths. Plato: Argued for absolute truth (expressed through Socrates, so we don’t know which is which); founded the Academy Aristotle: Founded the Lyceum; saw reason as a tool for knowledge; rejected Plato’s theory of forms and notion of a universal psyche

Pre-Greek Philosophers: The stuff that unified the reality we perceive—what is everything made of

The Sophists: The first relativists: “How do we know what we know?

Socrates: First (through Plato) to argue for an unchanging body of truths.

Plato: Argued for absolute truth (expressed through Socrates, so we don’t know which is which); founded the Academy

Aristotle: Founded the Lyceum; saw reason as a tool for knowledge; rejected Plato’s theory of forms and notion of a universal psyche

Pre-Greek Philosophers Thales of Miletus: produces an accurate theory of the solar eclipse Anaxmiander: Argued that life evolved from beginning in the sea and that humankind evolved from a more primitive species; laid groundwork for evolutionary theory Pythagoras: Argues for a spherical earth around which five planet revolved. Also laid down the Pythagoran Theorem, in which the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the square of the two sides. Leucippus: Theorized that all matter is composed of atoms Anaxagoras: Postulates that the sun is a large, glowing rock and explained solar eclipses

Thales of Miletus: produces an accurate theory of the solar eclipse

Anaxmiander: Argued that life evolved from beginning in the sea and that humankind evolved from a more primitive species; laid groundwork for evolutionary theory

Pythagoras: Argues for a spherical earth around which five planet revolved. Also laid down the Pythagoran Theorem, in which the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the square of the two sides.

Leucippus: Theorized that all matter is composed of atoms

Anaxagoras: Postulates that the sun is a large, glowing rock and explained solar eclipses

The Sophists Protagoras (pictured) Meaning of “Man is the Measure of All things” Knowledge cannot exceed human opinion Relativism forms the norm; there is no reality apart from one’s own perceptions Gorgias Reality in incomprehensible Even if one comprehend it, he could not describe the real to others. Basic Theme: What might be true and just for one may not be so for another.

Protagoras (pictured)

Meaning of “Man is the Measure of All things”

Knowledge cannot exceed human opinion

Relativism forms the norm; there is no reality apart from one’s own perceptions

Gorgias

Reality in incomprehensible

Even if one comprehend it, he could not describe the real to others.

Basic Theme: What might be true and just for one may not be so for another.

Socrates: The Dialectical Method To Socrates, inquiry involved a three-step method Thesis: A proposition of what is true Antithesis : a proposition offering the opposite proposition Synthesis: A proposition reconciling the thesis and antithesis. Formed the basis of his dialogues and his teaching technique

To Socrates, inquiry involved a three-step method

Thesis: A proposition of what is true

Antithesis : a proposition offering the opposite proposition

Synthesis: A proposition reconciling the thesis and antithesis.

Formed the basis of his dialogues and his teaching technique

Socrates: The Quest for Virtue I Contrary to the Sophists, argued that there is only a unitary truth This was not dependent on one’s perceptions Virtue is the condition of the psyche (soul or mind) To do good, one must first know good

Contrary to the Sophists, argued that there is only a unitary truth

This was not dependent on one’s perceptions

Virtue is the condition of the psyche (soul or mind)

To do good, one must first know good

Socrates: The Quest for Virtue II One argument: That as a citizen of Athens, he had incurred obligations One obligation was to submit to the law even if it meant his life (here, he is about to drink the hemlock as a sentence for corrupting the youth

One argument: That as a citizen of Athens, he had incurred obligations

One obligation was to submit to the law even if it meant his life (here, he is about to drink the hemlock as a sentence for corrupting the youth

Plato: The Quest for the Ideal Form Idealism: the notion that reality lies in the realm of unchanging forms rather than in sensory objects Our perceptions are imperfect and limited Psyche belongs to the universe of eternal forms; imprisoned in the body, the mind forgets its once-perfect knolwdge Task of philosophy: to draw the mind out of its limited body and so regain perfect awareness. Railed against the Sophists for their relativism

Idealism: the notion that reality lies in the realm of unchanging forms rather than in sensory objects

Our perceptions are imperfect and limited

Psyche belongs to the universe of eternal forms; imprisoned in the body, the mind forgets its once-perfect knolwdge

Task of philosophy: to draw the mind out of its limited body and so regain perfect awareness.

Railed against the Sophists for their relativism

Plato: Allegory of the Cave The cave is a metaphor for our perceived reality Like the shadows of the cave, our reality is not the things they really are, the ideal Going out into the sunlight, we would see the ideal that is behind the reality we perceive

The cave is a metaphor for our perceived reality

Like the shadows of the cave, our reality is not the things they really are, the ideal

Going out into the sunlight, we would see the ideal that is behind the reality we perceive

Plato: The Perfect State In Plato’s Republic, asks “what is the nature of justice?” and “ What is the nature of a just society?” Roots the answers in a two-level reality The one of changing particulars in our senses The other is an unchanging set of universal truths Formed the idea of a philosopher king, who alone perceived the universal truths and so were the only ones fit to rule a republic The physicists loved this idea and formed the backbone of their model at least before Einstein Also is dogmatic; Marx, for example, seized on this idea for a perfect socialist state.

In Plato’s Republic, asks “what is the nature of justice?” and

“ What is the nature of a just society?”

Roots the answers in a two-level reality

The one of changing particulars in our senses

The other is an unchanging set of universal truths

Formed the idea of a philosopher king, who alone perceived the universal truths and so were the only ones fit to rule a republic

The physicists loved this idea and formed the backbone of their model at least before Einstein

Also is dogmatic; Marx, for example, seized on this idea for a perfect socialist state.

Aristotle: In Pursuit of Reason A student of Plato, rejected both the notion of universal truths and psychic unity Argued that mind and matter could not exist independently of each other. Developed the empirical method, whereby observation of things and events are the key to understanding Methods: objectivity, clarity, and consistency He applied these methods to observing plants and animals, city state constitutions, and literary forms. Also invented the syllogism, the basis of inductive reasoning.

A student of Plato, rejected both the notion of universal truths and psychic unity

Argued that mind and matter could not exist independently of each other.

Developed the empirical method, whereby observation of things and events are the key to understanding

Methods: objectivity, clarity, and consistency

He applied these methods to observing plants and animals, city state constitutions, and literary forms.

Also invented the syllogism, the basis of inductive reasoning.

Aristotle: Ethics Basic aim of ethics: to achieve both happiness and the good life ( eudaimonia ) Eudaimonia is defined in terms of the object: eye is to see, racehorse is to run fast; knife is to cut. Ultimate aim is arete (virtue and excellence)

Basic aim of ethics: to achieve both happiness and the good life ( eudaimonia )

Eudaimonia is defined in terms of the object: eye is to see, racehorse is to run fast; knife is to cut.

Ultimate aim is arete (virtue and excellence)

Aristotle: The Golden Mean There is a need for balance between two extremes; between: Excess and scarcity, there must be moderation Cowardice and recklessness, there must be bravery or courage All these involve reason to arrive at a balanced moral conduct

There is a need for balance between two extremes; between:

Excess and scarcity, there must be moderation

Cowardice and recklessness, there must be bravery or courage

All these involve reason to arrive at a balanced moral conduct

Aristotle: Politics and the State Applied reason to analyze the state by comparing the constitution of 150 city states Argued that some were more fit to rule than others, so advocated an elitism. Government should exist for the sake of the state, not the individual, lest competing interests reduce the state to squabbling faction Ideal form: governance by the middle class (Golden Mean hypothesis between tyranny and anarchy) Humans can reach their potential only in the context of state society; man is thus a political animal

Applied reason to analyze the state by comparing the constitution of 150 city states

Argued that some were more fit to rule than others, so advocated an elitism.

Government should exist for the sake of the state, not the individual, lest competing interests reduce the state to squabbling faction

Ideal form: governance by the middle class (Golden Mean hypothesis between tyranny and anarchy)

Humans can reach their potential only in the context of state society; man is thus a political animal

Aristotle on Drama Tragedy: the cause of how an unfortunate ending comes to be An initiation of action that brings pity and fear An error in judgment made by a superior man Should be confined to the unities of time and place—a single place on a single day.

Tragedy: the cause of how an unfortunate ending comes to be

An initiation of action that brings pity and fear

An error in judgment made by a superior man

Should be confined to the unities of time and place—a single place on a single day.

Conclusion of this Section. Greeks formed city states but shared a culture Warring was common despite the advances in philosophy, arts, architecture, and drama The next stage: an empire, first under Philip of Macedonia Then under Alexander the Great, his son.

Greeks formed city states but shared a culture

Warring was common despite the advances in philosophy, arts, architecture, and drama

The next stage: an empire, first under Philip of Macedonia

Then under Alexander the Great, his son.

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Classical Greece - Wikipedia

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture. This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern ...
Read more

Classical Greece - Ancient History - HISTORY.com

Find out more about the history of Classical Greece, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more. Get all the facts on ...
Read more

History of Greece: Classical Greece

History of Greece: Classical Greece . The flurry of development and expansion of the Archaic Era was followed by the period of maturity we came to know as ...
Read more

Ancient Greece - Wikipedia

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to c. 5th centuries BC to the end ...
Read more

Classical Greece: Short Oxford History of Europe: 500-323 ...

Robin Osborne - Classical Greece: Short Oxford History of Europe: 500-323 BC (Short Oxford History of jetzt kaufen. ISBN: 9780198731535, Fremdsprachige ...
Read more

Classical Greece (Great Ages of Man): Amazon.de: C.M ...

C.M. Bowra - Classical Greece (Great Ages of Man) jetzt kaufen. ISBN: 9780900658259, Fremdsprachige Bücher - Fremdsprachige Bücher
Read more

Classical Greece: 500-323 BC: ebook jetzt bei weltbild.de

eBook Shop: Classical Greece: 500-323 BC als Download. Jetzt eBook sicher bei Weltbild runterladen & bequem mit Ihrem Tablet oder eBook Reader lesen.
Read more

Ancient Greece - History, mythology, art, war, culture ...

Information Resource on Ancient Greece, history, mythology, art and architecture, olympics, wars, culture and society, playwrights, philosophers ...
Read more

Luxury Hotels & Resorts in Greece | Grecotel

Grecotel Hotels and Resorts provide luxury accommodation for your travel to Greece, in 5 and 4 star hotels at the best locations for Greek holidays.
Read more