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Classical Civilizations: Persia and Greece

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Information about Classical Civilizations: Persia and Greece

Published on October 3, 2007

Author: albano

Source: slideshare.net

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Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East II. The Hellenistic Period III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East II. The Hellenistic Period III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture

IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East A. The Persians 550 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great Empire Conquered peoples retain culture Zoroaster Good vs. evil Last judgment

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East

A. The Persians

550 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great

Empire

Conquered peoples retain culture

Zoroaster

Good vs. evil

Last judgment

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East B. The Political Character of Classical Greece Variety of polities Aristocracy generally dominant Literacy From 8th century B.C.E. Iliad, Odyssey Basis for Hellenic culture Architecture Colonnaded buildings Arts Sculpture Black and red pottery The Greek World

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East

B. The Political Character of Classical Greece

Variety of polities Aristocracy generally dominant

Literacy

From 8th century B.C.E.

Iliad, Odyssey

Basis for Hellenic culture

Architecture

Colonnaded buildings

Arts

Sculpture Black and red pottery

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East C. The City-State as a Political Unit City-states (polis) Participation Assemblies, councils 500s Conflict between aristocracy and middling class Reform Solon of Athens Greater participation Poleis deeply united Public religion Political participation Cultural events, e.g. theatre

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East

C. The City-State as a Political Unit

City-states (polis)

Participation

Assemblies, councils

500s

Conflict between aristocracy and middling class Reform

Solon of Athens

Greater participation

Poleis deeply united

Public religion

Political participation

Cultural events, e.g. theatre

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East D. The Rise of Democracy in Athens Solon Peisistratus Cleisthenes Council Popular assembly Oversight of most of the government Offices filled by lot Who was excluded? Women Slaves Foreigners and their children

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East

D. The Rise of Democracy in Athens

Solon

Peisistratus

Cleisthenes

Council

Popular assembly

Oversight of most of the government

Offices filled by lot

Who was excluded?

Women

Slaves

Foreigners and their children

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East E. Fragmentation and Unity Colonization Spread of Greek culture Expansion of trade Religious games Truces Competition Olympics Delphi Conflict between cities Persian Wars Temporary unity Delian League Dominated by Athens Athens versus Sparta Political contrast Competing alliances Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.E. Athenian surrender, 404 B.C.E. Greece and Greek Colonies, c. 431 B.C.E.

I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East

E. Fragmentation and Unity

Colonization

Spread of Greek culture

Expansion of trade

Religious games

Truces

Competition

Olympics

Delphi

Conflict between cities

Persian Wars

Temporary unity

Delian League

Dominated by Athens

Athens versus Sparta

Political contrast

Competing alliances

Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.E.

Athenian surrender, 404 B.C.E.

II. The Hellenistic Period Spread of Greek rule, Greek culture Formation of a common cultural area Mediterranean, Near East A. Macedonian Conquest Macedon compared to southern Greece Monarchy v. city-state Plains v. mountainous Linguistic differences Philip II (359-336 B.C.E. ) By 338 B.C.E. , Greece conquered

II. The Hellenistic Period

Spread of Greek rule, Greek culture

Formation of a common cultural area

Mediterranean, Near East

A. Macedonian Conquest

Macedon compared to southern Greece

Monarchy v. city-state

Plains v. mountainous

Linguistic differences

Philip II (359-336 B.C.E. )

By 338 B.C.E. , Greece conquered

II. The Hellenistic Period B. Alexander the Great Conquests, 334-331 B.C.E. Into India, Egypt Cities founded Alexandria Death, 323 B.C.E. Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic World,, c. 323 B.C.E.

II. The Hellenistic Period

B. Alexander the Great

Conquests, 334-331 B.C.E.

Into India, Egypt Cities founded

Alexandria

Death, 323 B.C.E.

II. The Hellenistic Period C. Later Hellenistic States Division “ Successor states” Alexander’s generals rule Egypt: Ptolemies Relative stability Persia: Seleucids Macedonia: Antigonids Civil wars Bactria Blend of Indian and Greek culture

II. The Hellenistic Period

C. Later Hellenistic States

Division

“ Successor states”

Alexander’s generals rule

Egypt: Ptolemies

Relative stability

Persia: Seleucids

Macedonia: Antigonids

Civil wars

Bactria

Blend of Indian and Greek culture

III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture A. Religion, Philosophy, and Science Religion Pantheon of gods with human traits Mystery religions More emotional Philosophy Socrates Skepticism Plato Stoics Moral fortitude Science Pythagoras Euclid Galen Archimedes

III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture

A. Religion, Philosophy, and Science

Religion

Pantheon of gods with human traits

Mystery religions

More emotional

Philosophy

Socrates

Skepticism

Plato

Stoics

Moral fortitude

Science

Pythagoras

Euclid

Galen

Archimedes

III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture B. Literature and the Visual Arts Drama Public, religious, typified by conflict Sophocles Tragedy Aristophanes Comedy Oral epic Homer History Herodotus Thucydides Visual arts Public e.g. temples, victory sculpture Human achievement central Especially in Hellenistic period

III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture

B. Literature and the Visual Arts Drama

Public, religious, typified by conflict

Sophocles

Tragedy

Aristophanes

Comedy

Oral epic

Homer

History

Herodotus

Thucydides

Visual arts

Public

e.g. temples, victory sculpture

Human achievement central

Especially in Hellenistic period

III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture C. Hellenistic Culture Focus on exact sciences Geometry, medicine, etc. Art more emotional, less idealized Philosophy emphasizes withdrawal, not engagement

III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture

C. Hellenistic Culture

Focus on exact sciences

Geometry, medicine, etc.

Art more emotional, less idealized

Philosophy emphasizes withdrawal, not engagement

IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society A. Economic and Social Structure Aristocracy Power from land, military role Economic expansion, colonization Challenges role of aristocracy Merchants Ambiguous place in society Slavery From captives B. Men, Women, and Social Divisions Patriarchy Women Legal and cultural disabilities Adultery in men tolerated Punishable in women Some improvement in Hellenistic period

IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society

A. Economic and Social Structure

Aristocracy

Power from land, military role

Economic expansion, colonization

Challenges role of aristocracy

Merchants

Ambiguous place in society

Slavery

From captives

B. Men, Women, and Social Divisions Patriarchy

Women

Legal and cultural disabilities

Adultery in men tolerated

Punishable in women

Some improvement in Hellenistic period

IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society C. A Complex Legacy Ideas No lasting polities Artistic legacy Direct and indirect Consciously imitated, revived Mingled with Middle Eastern legacy

IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society

C. A Complex Legacy

Ideas

No lasting polities

Artistic legacy

Direct and indirect

Consciously imitated, revived

Mingled with Middle Eastern legacy

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