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Information about ClassDay6

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Rainero


History:  History Week 4, Session 6 October 16th, 2007 Moral Model:  Moral Model How Did It Evolve ? Antiquity (Greece, Rome): infanticide and fear of the gods:  Antiquity (Greece, Rome): infanticide and fear of the gods Exposed “deformed” infants. Not universal practice. Variations from species “norm.” Birth defects as omen. gods are displeased with some wrongdoing. Sacrificed as appeasement. Medical Model:  Medical Model Also present Greece:  Greece Aristotle’s Politics (350BC) Utopian, ideal leaders, beauty. “Deformed shall not be reared.” Impossible ideals; life span 40 years. Aristotle, Generation of Animals Female as “mutilated male” (less heat, so less perfectly formed). “Monstrous” births (inhuman form) explained by natural causes: male contributes “form,” female contributes “material.” Greece & Rome:  Greece & Rome Roman laws deny rights to the deaf & mentally disabled, seen as irrational. Military medicine & support for wounded veterans. Hippocratic medicine (450BC-1600AD) Imbalance of 4 body “humors” is the natural cause of epilepsy, melancholy, etc. Moral: Ancient Greeks :  Moral: Ancient Greeks Ethiopians were often idealized as a pious and 'blameless' people Judeo-Christian traditions::  Judeo-Christian traditions: Old Testament: Leviticus List of disabled people who must be excluded from rituals; don’t defile the divine with impurity. Bear the burden of sin. New Testament Jesus encounters the sick, blind (spiritually disabled?) Disability becomes a target of charity. Christians judged by their conduct to others Good deeds lead to salvation Ethics, mercy European Christian :  European Christian Ethiopians were monstrous principally owing to their black skin, which was considered a demonic feature. St Jerome stated that Ethiopians will lose their blackness once they are admitted to the New Jerusalem Monsters as “unnatural”: stories, wonders, moral symbols through the ages:  Monsters as “unnatural”: stories, wonders, moral symbols through the ages Charity in medieval Europe: moral/tragedy model:  Charity in medieval Europe: moral/tragedy model One large category of “misfortune.” Poverty & illness & disabilities. All seen as inevitable; part of God’s diverse creation (Saint Augustine 400AD). disabilities= God’s power over the natural world. Salvation of the rich thru gifts to poor. Small “hospices,” Hotel-Dieu, not medical role. 19,000 leprosariums; leprosy shunned. Begging as occupation License, guilds, competition. Children deliberately maimed for profit; faking. Dark Ages:  Dark Ages 1348 Black Death, social disorder & fear, scapegoat the poor. Medieval & Renaissance royal court amusement. Jester/dwarf, fool/idiot, epileptic, conjoined twins as objects of ridicule; bought as gifts, pets. Royalty display their “curiosity” collections. MIDDLE AGES 4th – 16th C.:  MIDDLE AGES 4th – 16th C. Family - Center of activities Monasteries – Refuge for blind 1403 – Bethlehem – Oldest Mental Institution in Europe Rampant Poverty - Begging Religion (Protestant & Catholic):  Religion (Protestant & Catholic) Disability as sin Demonic seizures. Birth defects tied to witchcraft. Martin Luther 1517 mentally disabled have no soul & should be killed. Faith healing 1495 Miracle of Cosmas and Damian (saints transplant leg) MIDDLE AGES 4th – 16th C.:  MIDDLE AGES 4th – 16th C. 1484 Pope Innocent VIII proclaimed a war against witches  next 300 years=100,000 witch trials.  mental illness was treated by tying up people in church other disabilities had the sign of the cross shaved into their heads.  Mental illness in the Middle Ages was very often diagnosed as witchcraft:  Mental illness in the Middle Ages was very often diagnosed as witchcraft MIDDLE AGES (cont):  MIDDLE AGES (cont) 1388  The Statute of Cambridge ("Poor Law") distinguished between "sturdy beggars" capable of work and "impotent beggars“ (not able) incapacitated by age or infirmity; No special provision for maintaining the sick poor. For the next two centuries the aged and infirm depended upon charity for survival. Early modern Europe (16-17C): :  Early modern Europe (16-17C): 1601 English Poor Law First state welfare. Divides the poor into deserving (disabled) and undeserving (able to work). Notoriously meager. Renaissance art: ideal body glorified again. The Enlightenment: mind & education (18thC France):  The Enlightenment: mind & education (18thC France) Philosophers promote REASON over authority. rational, universal “man” as liberal democratic ideal. “natural” inferiority based on gender, race. 1690 John Locke & tabula rasa (blank slate) Ideas come from sense perceptions. So all minds can be trained. Early Modern – 18th C.:  Early Modern – 18th C. Renaissance – New Advances in Human Understanding (experience & reason) Reformation: Calvin / Luther – Preached that People with Mental Illness Possessed or Created by Satan Start of Biological Origin / Treatment - Understanding Difference - Intellectual Disability / Mental Illness Europe – By 17th C. Poverty – suspect - Begging Outlawed Paris 1657 Monstrous Burke & the French Revolution :  Monstrous Burke & the French Revolution “…Burke's argument rested …on a rhetorical contrast between the natural constitution of the body politic and the monstrous deformity that the (French) revolution had brought forth. “Burke repeatedly referred to "public measures . . . deformed into monsters,“,"monstrous democratic assemblies," "this monster of a constitution," "unnatural and monstrous activity," and the llke….” Douglas C. Baynton, “Disability and the Justification of Inequality in American History, pg 35 Baynton:  Baynton “The metaphor of the natural versus the monstrous was a fundamental way of constructing social reality in Burke's time. By the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, however, the concept of the natural was to a great extent displaced or subsumed by the concept of normality.” Douglas C. Baynton, “Disability and the Justification of Inequality in American History, pg 35 18th – 19th C:  18th – 19th C Denis Diderot’s 1749 “Letter on the Blind” Rejects spiritual/sin ideas of blindness. Blind people have skills & intelligence & should be educated. 1784 Paris, first school for the blind. Early 1800’s - US: Moral Treatment by Institutions 1820 Louis Braille, blind student & teacher. 1831 Boston, Perkins school (H. Keller ~1900). Debate: institutionalization vs. integration. Assume all disabled people are dependent. Residential & trade schools until 1970s. Charity Organization Societies (COS) 1870:  Charity Organization Societies (COS) 1870 Urban poverty was caused by moral deficiencies of the poor individuals in poverty could be uplifted through association with middle-and upper-class volunteers ("friendly visiting" ) 19th Century:  19th Century During the nineteenth century theories of race were advanced both by the scientific community and in the popular daily and periodical press: In much of the pseudo-scientific literature of the day the Irish, Blacks, Lower classes held to be an example of a lower evolutionary form, closer to the apes than their "superiors", the Anglo-Saxons. These “others” were seen as: Unreasonable, irrational, and easily excited Childlike Having no religion but only superstition. Criminal Excessively sexual Filthy Ape like qualities 1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species Education & developmental disabilities:  Education & developmental disabilities 1840s, Paris then US Edouard Seguin, “apostle to the idiots.” Teach sensory-motor “control.” 1848 Boston, School for Idiotic and Feebleminded Youth. Goal to train in job skills (if jobs available). 1870s, England and US residential schools. Universal education & those who don’t fit. By 1875, claims that “mental deficiency” was increasing, and need to build larger custodial institutions, hidden away, permanent care, protect society. Inmates as unpaid workers; self-sufficient colonies. 1894 Rome State Asylum for Unteachable Idiots. “Idiots” diagnoses and degeneration theory:  “Idiots” diagnoses and degeneration theory 1848 Samuel G. Howe, ON THE CAUSES OF IDIOCY “E. G., aged 8 years. This poor creature may be taken as a type of the lowest kind of idiocy. The probable causes are hereditary ones. The grand-parents were very scrofulous and unhealthy. The parents were apparently healthy, but gave themselves up to excessive sensual indulgence.” 1866 J. Langdon Down, OBSERVATIONS ON AN ETHNIC CLASSIFICATION OF IDIOCY “We have examples of retrogression…or departure from one type and the assumption of the characteristics of another.” Down coined term “mongolism” to characterize people with intellectual impairment as equivalent to people of different races. Evolutionary “throwbacks” to a “lower” ancestral race. Also criminals were explained as throwbacks to animal type, lacking human moral sense. History of institutions for mentally impaired people:  History of institutions for mentally impaired people By 1700, France had 100 “general hospitals,” mixed poor, sick, disabled, mental disorders. 1377 London’s Bethlehem asylum (“Bedlam”) Until late 1800s, most lived in family, community Able to contribute in pre-industrial economy; work in home, fields; unpaid labor still valued. Abuses in madhouses (1700-1850):  Abuses in madhouses (1700-1850) THE RISE OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTION MORAL TREATMENT:  THE RISE OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTION MORAL TREATMENT 1841- 1870s Dorothea Dix – 30 state public institutions for people with mental impairments built 1870s Poor funding, growing size of institutions - Overcrowded, dirty institutions. Segregation of middle class / poor. Husbands could commit wives. Severe Economic depressions 1870 & 1880 THE RISE OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTION:  THE RISE OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTION By 1850, 55 asylums - ~ 45,000 ''known insane persons'‘ 1870 -1880 Census: PWMD= 97 to 183 / 100,000 PWID= 64 to 153 / 100,000 by 1900, 328 institutions - ~ 200,000 patients The peaked in 1955 at ~ 560,000 Statistical bell curve (1835) invented in the era of efficiency, progress, eugenics:  Statistical bell curve (1835) invented in the era of efficiency, progress, eugenics Statistics created “the tyranny of the norm,” really the ideal. The disabled fall short. Statistician Francis Galton founded the eugenics program of eliminating deviations from the norm (in one direction only). The asylum: from moral to “medical”:  The asylum: from moral to “medical” Initial benevolent goals of reformed asylums. “Moral treatment” (self-control) Calm environment, social activities, baths/diet. Small private retreats for the wealthy. US run by Quakers. 1835 Lunatic Asylum, Columbus Ohio:  1835 Lunatic Asylum, Columbus Ohio American Schools 1880-1920:  American Schools 1880-1920 Schools based on the efficiency movement. workplace - learning was perceived in terms of productivity. Cubberly stated that schools should be like factories. Referring to the teachers as the factory workers and the students as the raw material to be turned into the product. The children who could not be processed to completion were considered as scraps. …. they were considered to be dropped out of the production line ="drop outs." Eugenics:  Eugenics Sir Francis Galton 1883: "Eugenics is the study of the agencies under social control that seek to improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally." Francis Galton, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (London: Macmillan, 1883). From segregation to prevention of “unfit” births = the eugenics movement 1900-1940:  From segregation to prevention of “unfit” births = the eugenics movement 1900-1940 Social costs, burden of supporting the “feebleminded” and their offspring. vs. desirable traits = white, middle-class norms… US sterilizes 60,000 people in institutions. Popular Culture Freak Show:  Popular Culture Freak Show Captain Ahab, bitter and deformed, in Moby Dick Classic children's tales - disabled people are evil: The deformed, cannibalistic witch in Hansel and Gretel, 1845 Captain Hook, the "limb-missing”, patched-eye pirates of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island, 1885 "the queen in Snow White, who becomes a "wart-nosed, hunched-over witch" to poison Snow White, and other disabled characters are wicked. 1845 Social construction of “freaks”: How’d you like to become a giant?:  Social construction of “freaks”: How’d you like to become a giant? Circus sideshows, performers 1840s-1940s Display, entertain, skills “Real” and not-real disabilities, identities. Make a living (how exploitative?) Replaced by medicalized power over disability: bodies displayed at medical museum, presentations at scientific meetings, today’s documentaries. Sara Baartman, exhibited in Europe as Hottentot Venus, died 1815, dissected & displayed:  Sara Baartman, exhibited in Europe as Hottentot Venus, died 1815, dissected & displayed IQ testing:  IQ testing 1905 invented by Alfred Binet. “abnormal” children can be educated. 1910s US psychologists corrupt this goal. Mental testing industry. Person’s intelligence is unchangeable. Hereditary. Measure & label & institutionalize. “Menace” to society. Moron – imbecile – idiot scale. By 1900, 328 institutions, with 200,000 people labeled mentally impaired. Time Line:  Time Line 1920 “The Permission to Destroy Life Unworthy of Life,” Karl Binding , a lawyer, & Alfred Hoche, a psychiatrist. Germany. 1927 Buck v. Bell United States Supreme Court upheld the concept of eugenic sterilization for people considered genetically "unfit." Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., stated: "Three generations of imbeciles are enough.“ Upheld Virginia's sterilization statute which provided for similar laws in 30 states, under which an estimated 65,000 Americans were sterilized without their own consent Time Line:  Time Line 1933 Nazi Germany -between1933-1939, 375,000 people in Germany sterilized 1939 T4 program – Start of Germany’s Euthanasia program ~275,000 PWD murdered. Slide46:  ICE PICK LOBOTOMY Slide47:  In 1936, Walter Freeman performed his first lobotomy operation. Inserting an ordinary ice pick above each eye of a patient with only local anesthetic, drive it through the thin bone with a light tap of a mallet, swish the pick back and forth like a windshield wiper and - a formerly difficult patient is now passive. Used it for everything - psychosis to depression to neurosis to criminality. He developed assembly line lobotomies, going from one patient to the next with his gold-plated ice pick. Between 1939 and 1951, over 18,000 lobotomies were performed in the US, and many more in other countries. It was often used on convicts, and in Japan, it was recommended for use on “difficult” children. The old USSR banned it back in the 1940s on moral grounds! In the 1950s protests began. The general statistics = ~ a third of lobotomy patients improved, a third stayed the same, and the last third actually got worse! Francis Farmer, an eccentric actress, was committed to Western State hospital. Rosemary Kennedy, sister to John, Robert, and Edward Kennedy, was given a lobotomy when her father complained about the mildly retarded girl’s embarrassing new interest in boys. Her father never informed the rest of the family about what he had done. She lived out her life in a Wisconsin institution and died January 7, 2005, at the age of 86. Her sister, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, founded the Special Olympics in her honor in 1968. Slide50:  "Bedlam 1946" by Albert Q. Maisel, Life Magazine (5/6/46) Time Line (cont):  Time Line (cont) 1935 The Social Security Act, providing federal old age benefits and grants to the states for assistance to blind people and children with disabilities, becomes law. 1937 The March of Dimes is founded 1940 National Federation of the Blind 1947 Paralyzed Veterans of America is organized 1950 The Association of Retarded Citizens (theARC) — William Stokoe's paper on Sign Language Structure legitimizes American Sign Language and ushers in the movement of Deafness as culture. 1962 Edward Roberts sues to gain admission to the University of California, the same semester that James Meredith requires a lawsuit to become the first black person to attend the University of Mississippi. 1964 The Civil Rights Act 1938:  1938 Time Line (cont):  Time Line (cont) 1950s-1970s Deinstitutionalization State Institutions 1972 The appalling conditions at Willowbrook State School in New York City for people with developmental disabilities are exposed as the result of a television broadcast by Geraldo Rivera from the facility. (POP ~5,700) Time Line (cont):  Time Line (cont) 1975 Vietnam War ends 1977 Following nationwide demonstrations by disability activists, HEW SecretaryJoseph Califano signs the regulations for Section 504 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. 1977 Black Deaf Advocates is founded 1983 ADAPT, American Disabled for Accessible Public Transit, (American Disabled For Attendant Programs Today) 1985 Society for Disability Studies 1988 The Gallaudet University uprising - first deaf president Eugenics Lives On 1994:  Eugenics Lives On 1994 The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life Richard J. Herrnstein (professor of psychology at Harvard University) and Charles Murray WHERE WE ARE NOW:  WHERE WE ARE NOW 2000 + years of Religion / Superstition New Religion of Reason & Rationality Massive Social Changes Social Construction of Disability

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