Class7b

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Information about Class7b

Published on September 3, 2008

Author: USAteacher

Source: slideshare.net

Class 7b: Geographies of Religion

Religion and culture Everyone has values and morals Religion means worship, faith in the sacred or divine Mentifacts: individuals’ beliefs Sociofacts: relationships based on those beliefs

Everyone has values and morals

Religion means worship, faith in the sacred or divine

Mentifacts: individuals’ beliefs

Sociofacts: relationships based on those beliefs

Religion and geography Spatial distribution of religions Diffusion of religious beliefs and practices Impact on the landscape Territorial conflicts over religion

Spatial distribution of religions

Diffusion of religious beliefs and practices

Impact on the landscape

Territorial conflicts over religion

Figure 7.25

Figure 7.25

Distribution of religions Universalizing religions Christianity, Islam, Buddhism Ethnic religions More than a statement of faith Judaism, Hinduism, Shinto Tribal or traditional religions Animism, shamanism

Universalizing religions

Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

Ethnic religions

More than a statement of faith

Judaism, Hinduism, Shinto

Tribal or traditional religions

Animism, shamanism

Distribution of Christianity Largest religion (2 billion) Three major branches Roman Catholic 50% Protestant 25% Eastern Orthodox 10% Others: Pentecostal, Mormon, Armenian, Coptic, Maronites

Largest religion (2 billion)

Three major branches

Roman Catholic 50%

Protestant 25%

Eastern Orthodox 10%

Others: Pentecostal, Mormon, Armenian, Coptic, Maronites

Figure 7.25

Figure 7.25

Diffusion of Christianity Began in Jerusalem Official religion of Rome by 313 Split Roman Empire and Christian church Roman Catholicism in West Eastern Orthodox in East Protestant Reformation second split Catholicism in South Protestantism in North

Began in Jerusalem

Official religion of Rome by 313

Split Roman Empire and Christian church

Roman Catholicism in West

Eastern Orthodox in East

Protestant Reformation second split

Catholicism in South

Protestantism in North

Figure 7.29

Figure 7.29

Diffusion of Christianity Spread to New World by colonizers, settlers Figure 7.31

Spread to New World by colonizers, settlers

Figure 7.31

Christianity and the landscape Church as center of settlement Collective worship important Architecture, layout symbolic Cemeteries as land use Hierarchy of spatial organization

Church as center of settlement

Collective worship important

Architecture, layout symbolic

Cemeteries as land use

Hierarchy of spatial organization

Paris Sacramento Vermont

Christianity and territory: Ireland English colony Independence in 1937 6 counties voted to stay North discriminated against Catholics IRA: terrorism for unity 1966-1999: 3000 dead

English colony

Independence in 1937

6 counties voted to stay

North discriminated against Catholics

IRA: terrorism for unity

1966-1999: 3000 dead

Distribution of Islam Fastest growing religion (1.2 billion) Two major branches Sunni 85% Shiite 15% North Africa, SW Asia, Indonesia

Fastest growing religion (1.2 billion)

Two major branches

Sunni 85%

Shiite 15%

North Africa, SW Asia, Indonesia

Figure 7.25

Figure 7.25

Five pillars of Islam There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his prophet Pray 5 times daily, facing Mecca Give to charity Fast daily during Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once ( hajj )

There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his prophet

Pray 5 times daily, facing Mecca

Give to charity

Fast daily during Ramadan

Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once ( hajj )

Other practices of Islam Qur’an or Koran: sacred text Revealed to Muhammad Should be read in Arabic Hadith : sayings and actions of Muhammad “ Chain of reporters” Open to interpretation (e.g., veiling)

Qur’an or Koran: sacred text

Revealed to Muhammad

Should be read in Arabic

Hadith : sayings and actions of Muhammad

“ Chain of reporters”

Open to interpretation (e.g., veiling)

Other beliefs of Islam Tolerance of People of the Book Jews, Christians Descendants of Ishmael More egalitarian than Christianity No intermediaries Worshippers are equals

Tolerance of People of the Book

Jews, Christians

Descendants of Ishmael

More egalitarian than Christianity

No intermediaries

Worshippers are equals

Diffusion of Islam Began in Mecca and Medina in 622 Spread rapidly to east and west Conquered North Africa, Spain, SE Europe within 200 years Traders spread to SE Asia, Africa

Began in Mecca and Medina in 622

Spread rapidly to east and west

Conquered North Africa, Spain, SE Europe within 200 years

Traders spread to SE Asia, Africa

 

Diffusion of Islam Split over succession Shiites insist on hereditary leaders Sunnis do not Iran, Bahrain, southern Iraq: Shiite Iraq civil war?

Split over succession

Shiites insist on hereditary leaders

Sunnis do not

Iran, Bahrain, southern Iraq: Shiite

Iraq civil war?

Islam and the landscape Sacred cities: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem Muhammad’s birthplace, Ka’ba Muhammad’s first “conquest” Muhammad’s ascent to Heaven Mosques for community gathering, worship Mihrab points to Mecca Minaret: tower for call to prayer

Sacred cities: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem

Muhammad’s birthplace, Ka’ba

Muhammad’s first “conquest”

Muhammad’s ascent to Heaven

Mosques for community gathering, worship

Mihrab points to Mecca

Minaret: tower for call to prayer

Turkey Uzbekistan Burkina Faso

 

 

 

Granada Cordoba

Islam and territory: Spain Reached France and Vienna; driven back Ruled much of Spain for 300 years Driven out by 1492 Forced conversion sent Muslims, Jews east 1030 1360

Reached France and Vienna; driven back

Ruled much of Spain for 300 years

Driven out by 1492

Forced conversion sent Muslims, Jews east

 

arroz (rice) azúcar (sugar) limón (lemon) naranja (orange) ajedrez (chess) almohada (pillow) embarazo (pregnancy) alcabala (tax) alcalde (mayor) barrio (neighborhood) alcohol algebra

Religion and fundamentalism Ultraconservative beliefs Reaction to modernism Want to institutionalize their values Them against the world

Ultraconservative beliefs

Reaction to modernism

Want to institutionalize their values

Them against the world

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