Class24ImlicatureExp

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Published on February 19, 2008

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LCS121: Psycholinguistics Class 24 – 3/24/05 Pomona College, Spring'05:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Class 24 – 3/24/05 Pomona College, Spring'05 http://www.linguistics.pomona.edu/LGCS121Spring2005/index.html Asst. Prof. Martin Hackl Mason Hall 110B *18927 Martin.Hackl@pomona.edu Slide2:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Processing Studies of Scalar Implicatures Storto&Tanenhaus(2004): “Are Scalar Implicatures Computed Online?” Scalar implicatures with OR. (1) a. John is sick or out partying. b. John is sick. c. John is not out partying. 2) a. Anybody who is an American citizen or has already checked their bags can go to the front of the line. b. Mary is American who has checked her bags. c. Mary can go the front of the line. Scalar Implicatures with OR:  Scalar Implicatures with OR Truth-table for “inclusive or” Truth-table for “exclusive or” p q p v q p q (p v q) & ¬ (p & q) 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 A Gricean Analysis: - And and or are scalar alternatives with & > v because p & q asymmetrically entails p v q. - Maxim of Quantity - The fact that the speaker uses a weaker expression in place of a stronger one implicates that the speaker was not in the position to assert the stronger statement. LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Slide4:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Scalar Implicatures with OR Where and when do scalar implicatures of this sort arise? (1) a. Every guest who had fish or chicken got sick. b.≈/≈ Every guest who had fish or chicken but not both fish and chicken got sick. (2) a. If John had fish or chicken he will get sick. b.≈/≈ If John had fish or chicken but not both he will get sick. (3) a. It is not the case that John was talking to Mary or Sue. b.≈/≈ It is not the case that John was talking to Mary or Sue not to both. (4) a. If John was talking to Mary or Sue his wife will be angry. b.≈/≈ If John was talking Mary or Sue but not to both Mary and Sue his wife will be angry. Slide5:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Scalar Implicatures with OR “Intrusive Implicatures:” Levinson (2000) (1) a. AIDS vaccination will cause significant mortality.: but losing some of the people is better than losing at least some and perhaps all of it. (2) a. Any mother with three children is happier than any mother with four. b. # Any mother with at least three children is happier than any mother with at least four. c. (?) Any mother with a boy or a girl is happier than any mother with a boy and a girl. (MH) (3) a. A nuclear family with three children is smaller than a nuclear family with four. b. A student who cheats on some exams is better than one who cheats on all. c. A family with a grandmother or a grandfather is smaller than a family with a grandmother and a grandfather. (MH) Slide6:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Scalar Implicatures with OR (4) If you ate some of the cookies and no one else ate any, then there must still be some left. (5) # If you ate the cookies or the cake and no one else ate any of the cookies or the cake, then there must still be either the cookies or the cake left. (6) a. A nuclear family with three children is smaller than a nuclear family with four. b. A student who cheats on some exams is better than one who cheats on all. Slide7:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Eye-Tracking in the Language Processing Reading: generally self-paced reading is believed to be as sensitive to real time processing effects of grammatical phenomena as eye-tracking. Caveat: slow-down in self paced reading does not indicate back-tracking (regression of eye-movements) Visual Search Paradigms: - To what extent does linguistic form determine how you look for information in the world? - To what extent does information about the world effect your (real time) processing - What is the time course of integrating linguistic and non- linguistic information. Slide8:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Bezuidenhout&Morris(2004): Cancellation of Scalar Implicatures Cancellation of Implicatures: Evidence from Eye-movements in Reading (1) a Some books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. a’ Some books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. b Many books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. c. The books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. Filler items: (2) Some books had color pictures. In fact all of the pictures were highly colored, which is why the children liked them Slide9:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Bezuidenhout&Morris(2004): Cancellation of Scalar Implicatures No significant difference in how much back-tracking to some/many/the or at the end of the sentence. Slide10:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Tanenhaus et al. (1995) Modularity in sentence processing: First pass parsing was/is believed to be informationally encapsulated similar (hence modular). a # The horse raced past the barn fell. b. John and Mary like to race their horses. The horse raced past the barn fell. (2) (#) Put the apple on the towel in the box. Head-mounted eye-tracking:  Head-mounted eye-tracking From Sedivy(1999) LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Slide12:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Tanenhaus et al. (1995) Put the apple on the towel in the box. More vs. Fewer:  More vs. Fewer Ann Bill More vs. Fewer:  More vs. Fewer More vs. Fewer:  More vs. Fewer Ann Bill Ann has more diamonds than Bill.:  Ann has more diamonds than Bill. Ann + Bill 1 2 Bill has fewer diamonds than Ann.:  Bill has fewer diamonds than Ann. Ann + Bill 1 2 3 In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away.:  In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away. In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away.:  In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away. The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. The witch gave more oranges to the boy than to the girl.:  The witch gave more oranges to the boy than to the girl. The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. Fewer Apples:  Fewer Apples The pig gave fewer apples to the cow than to the camel.:  The pig gave fewer apples to the cow than to the camel. It’s almost as if a fewer than b triggers …:  It’s almost as if a fewer than b triggers … Ann + Bill Does A have more than B? No! Does B have more than A? Yes. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) FewerT FewerF A B + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT FewerF A B + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A FewerF A B + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A B>A FewerF A B + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A B>A FewerF A>B  (B>A) A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A B>A FewerF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + + + “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF B>A  A>B (B>A) FewerT FewerF A B + + “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF B>A  A>B (B>A) FewerT B>A B>A FewerF A B + + + “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF B>A  A>B (B>A) FewerT B>A B>A FewerF (B>A) B>A A B + + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The witch gave fewer oranges to the girl than to the boy. False Start.:  The witch gave fewer oranges to the girl than to the boy. False Start. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The owl gave fewer coins to the weasel than to the turtle.:  The owl gave fewer coins to the weasel than to the turtle. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The owl gave more coins to the weasel than to the turtle.:  The owl gave more coins to the weasel than to the turtle. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Slide52:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) How early do speakers compute the scalar implicature “but not both” triggered by (un-embedded) or? Method: Head mounted eye-tracking allows you to monitor how fast speakers identify the target object of an action. How early do speakers compute scalar implicatures to speed up the search? “The grapes or the oranges are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide53:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND Procedure: subjects see the scene for 3 seconds. Then an instruction as the one below played over speakers “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide54:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide55:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide56:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) OR “The the grapes or the oranges are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide57:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” End:  End

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