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Class15a

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Information about Class15a

Published on September 3, 2008

Author: USAteacher

Source: slideshare.net

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Class 15a: Water resources Water supply and demand Modification of waterways Water quality and pollution

Water supply and demand

Modification of waterways

Water quality and pollution

Availability of water Only 3% of Earth’s water is fresh Only 0.003% is available Surface water: streams, lakes, etc. Groundwater: found in aquifers

Only 3% of Earth’s water is fresh

Only 0.003% is available

Surface water: streams, lakes, etc.

Groundwater: found in aquifers

Demand for water Since 1950, per capita water use has tripled: why? 1 billion people lack safe water Depends on climate, population, level of development

Since 1950, per capita water use has tripled: why?

1 billion people lack safe water

Depends on climate, population, level of development

 

Demand for water U.S. individual use: 180 gallons/day Lettuce: 6 gallons Glass of milk: 48 gallons Eggs: 63 gallons each Loaf of bread: 145 gallons Pound of beef: 8,500 gallons

U.S. individual use: 180 gallons/day

Lettuce: 6 gallons

Glass of milk: 48 gallons

Eggs: 63 gallons each

Loaf of bread: 145 gallons

Pound of beef: 8,500 gallons

Demand for water 85% SW U.S. 10% 49% 41% U.S. 8% 25% 70% World Household Industry/energy Agriculture

Politics of water Military tool since 2500 B.C. Jordan R., Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, etc. “ Environmental security” Cooperation among riparian nations needed Water wars?

Military tool since 2500 B.C.

Jordan R., Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, etc.

“ Environmental security”

Cooperation among riparian nations needed

Water wars?

Aral Sea Was the world’s fourth largest lake; now 80% gone Central Asian desert climate Irrigation on Amu Darya, Syr Darya Cotton, rice Commercial, not subsistence, farming

Was the world’s fourth largest lake; now 80% gone

Central Asian desert climate

Irrigation on Amu Darya, Syr Darya

Cotton, rice

Commercial, not subsistence, farming

 

Aral Sea Increased salinization Fishing industry gone Salts and dust from dry lakebed Rivers slow, contaminated Climate even more continental “ Ten times worse than Chernobyl”

Increased salinization

Fishing industry gone

Salts and dust from dry lakebed

Rivers slow, contaminated

Climate even more continental

“ Ten times worse than Chernobyl”

Ogallala Aquifer Equivalent to a Great Lake; 25-100 years left Cattle, wheat, corn, cotton (1/5 of U.S. cropland) Drinking water for 2 million “ Groundwater mining” Potentially renewable resource Used up to 22 times faster than replaced

Equivalent to a Great Lake; 25-100 years left

Cattle, wheat, corn, cotton (1/5 of U.S. cropland)

Drinking water for 2 million

“ Groundwater mining”

Potentially renewable resource

Used up to 22 times faster than replaced

 

Solutions? More groundwater (not long-term) Diverting rivers (Columbia? Ob?) Towing icebergs (expensive) Desalination (expensive, energy-intensive)

More groundwater (not long-term)

Diverting rivers (Columbia? Ob?)

Towing icebergs (expensive)

Desalination (expensive, energy-intensive)

Solutions? Conservation! Est. 65-70% of water is lost (50% in U.S.) True pricing Less federally subsidized water in West More metering (Sacramento) More efficient irrigation Reclaiming and recycling

Conservation!

Est. 65-70% of water is lost (50% in U.S.)

True pricing

Less federally subsidized water in West

More metering (Sacramento)

More efficient irrigation

Reclaiming and recycling

 

Modification of streams Your responsibility! Channelization What and where Downstream, upstream consequences Effects of cities, deforestation

Your responsibility!

Channelization

What and where

Downstream, upstream consequences

Effects of cities, deforestation

What is water “quality”? Depends on the use Drinking, swimming, fishing, aquatic life, industry, etc. 2000 EPA assessment: 40% of streams, 45% of lakes, 14% of coasts did not meet quality standards

Depends on the use

Drinking, swimming, fishing, aquatic life, industry, etc.

2000 EPA assessment: 40% of streams, 45% of lakes, 14% of coasts did not meet quality standards

 

Water quality and pollution Biological or chemical pollutants Pathogens, silt, metals, chemicals Point sources: specific location Non-point sources: dispersed location Agriculture, industry, mining, residences

Biological or chemical pollutants

Pathogens, silt, metals, chemicals

Point sources: specific location

Non-point sources: dispersed location

Agriculture, industry, mining, residences

 

Agricultural runoff 1/2 to 2/3 of stream pollution in U.S. Excess fertilizer Eutrophication Algae blooms, “dead zone” Herbicides, pesticides Animal wastes (factory farms)

1/2 to 2/3 of stream pollution in U.S.

Excess fertilizer

Eutrophication

Algae blooms, “dead zone”

Herbicides, pesticides

Animal wastes (factory farms)

 

 

 

 

Industrial/mining runoff Metals, arsenic from gold mining PCBs from industry Mercury from industry, mining Concentration in Arctic Cultural, health implications

Metals, arsenic from gold mining

PCBs from industry

Mercury from industry, mining

Concentration in Arctic

Cultural, health implications

Clean Water Act (1972) Set U.S. water quality standards Goal of no discharge by 1985 Focus on “end of pipe” Cheaper to violate? Eastern rivers, Great Lakes greatly improved Considered a legislative success story

Set U.S. water quality standards

Goal of no discharge by 1985

Focus on “end of pipe”

Cheaper to violate?

Eastern rivers, Great Lakes greatly improved

Considered a legislative success story

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