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Class14a

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Information about Class14a

Published on September 3, 2008

Author: USAteacher

Source: slideshare.net

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Class 14a: Natural hazards Vulnerability and disaster Geologic events Climatic events

Vulnerability and disaster

Geologic events

Climatic events

Natural hazards and disasters Natural disaster: damage to life or property Natural hazard: risk of natural disaster Combination of physical and human geography Droughts, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanoes

Natural disaster: damage to life or property

Natural hazard: risk of natural disaster

Combination of physical and human geography

Droughts, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanoes

Natural hazards and disasters Trigger events are natural But “disasters” are man-made Humans can increase risk Building on a hillside Or increase vulnerability Building in a floodplain

Trigger events are natural

But “disasters” are man-made

Humans can increase risk

Building on a hillside

Or increase vulnerability

Building in a floodplain

Four types of impacts Direct damage Emergency response hampered Short-term service interruptions Long-term economic loss

Direct damage

Emergency response hampered

Short-term service interruptions

Long-term economic loss

1906 San Francisco Earthquake Sunday 5 A.M.; 40 seconds; 8.2 magnitude 3000 dead; 3/5 of housing, all of CBD Multiple, interrelated hazards Earthquake led to fire Failure of “lifelines” Water mains and tanks ruptured

Sunday 5 A.M.; 40 seconds; 8.2 magnitude

3000 dead; 3/5 of housing, all of CBD

Multiple, interrelated hazards

Earthquake led to fire

Failure of “lifelines”

Water mains and tanks ruptured

1906 San Francisco Earthquake Learning from mistakes Structural damage  stronger codes Larger water supply (Hetch Hetchy) Or not! Reservoir on fault line Fire debris became Marina District

Learning from mistakes

Structural damage  stronger codes

Larger water supply (Hetch Hetchy)

Or not!

Reservoir on fault line

Fire debris became Marina District

1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake Weekday, 5 P.M; 15 sec.; 7.1 magnitude 62 dead; 12,000 homeless; $6 billion Interrelated hazards Worst damage on fill from 1906 Failure of lifelines (Bay Bridge)

Weekday, 5 P.M; 15 sec.; 7.1 magnitude

62 dead; 12,000 homeless; $6 billion

Interrelated hazards

Worst damage on fill from 1906

Failure of lifelines (Bay Bridge)

 

Natural hazards and disasters Most deaths in poor countries Squatter settlements, unclaimed land Few warning systems, evacuation plans Few building codes Deliberate risks

Most deaths in poor countries

Squatter settlements, unclaimed land

Few warning systems, evacuation plans

Few building codes

Deliberate risks

Bam, Iran 12/26/2003

Hurricane Jeanne (2004) 2,000 dead in Haiti; 12 in Dominican Rep. Haiti is 98% deforested Very poor, very high birth rates French land system: land divided by heirs 71% of fuel from charcoal (wood) No early warning system

2,000 dead in Haiti; 12 in Dominican Rep.

Haiti is 98% deforested

Very poor, very high birth rates

French land system: land divided by heirs

71% of fuel from charcoal (wood)

No early warning system

Natural hazards and disasters Most property damage in rich countries Loss of life avoided Prime real estate often disaster-prone More reporting, reimbursement “ Solutions” may give false sense of security

Most property damage in rich countries

Loss of life avoided

Prime real estate often disaster-prone

More reporting, reimbursement

“ Solutions” may give false sense of security

1991 East Bay Hills Fire Oct. 20: 25 dead, 2,700 homes, $1.5 billion, 5,100 homeless: 9 hours Risk factors Vegetation (flammable eucalypts) Fire suppression policy Wood houses, decks Narrow, winding roads

Oct. 20: 25 dead, 2,700 homes, $1.5 billion, 5,100 homeless: 9 hours

Risk factors

Vegetation (flammable eucalypts)

Fire suppression policy

Wood houses, decks

Narrow, winding roads

1991 East Bay Hills Fire Interrelated hazards: drought, fire Failure of lifelines: narrow roads, incompatible fire equipment Rebuilt immediately (high property values) But with vegetation, material restrictions

Interrelated hazards: drought, fire

Failure of lifelines: narrow roads, incompatible fire equipment

Rebuilt immediately (high property values)

But with vegetation, material restrictions

Four stages of response Preparation and readiness Emergency response Recovery (short- and long-term) Mitigation

Preparation and readiness

Emergency response

Recovery (short- and long-term)

Mitigation

Types of mitigation Warning systems, evacuation planning Building regulations Land use planning and land acquisition Education Habitat protection/restoration

Warning systems, evacuation planning

Building regulations

Land use planning and land acquisition

Education

Habitat protection/restoration

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