Class13a

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Information about Class13a

Published on September 3, 2008

Author: USAteacher

Source: slideshare.net

Class 13a: Services and transportation Tertiary economic activity Central place theory Transportation geography Air pollution

Tertiary economic activity

Central place theory

Transportation geography

Air pollution

What are services? No tangible product “ Leftover” economic activity Consumer vs. business vs. public Retail vs. personal Producer vs. transportation

No tangible product

“ Leftover” economic activity

Consumer vs. business vs. public

Retail vs. personal

Producer vs. transportation

 

What are services? Bifurcated wages, skills Labor more important, but fewer unions More women (“pink-collar” workers) Tertiary, quaternary, or quinary

Bifurcated wages, skills

Labor more important, but fewer unions

More women (“pink-collar” workers)

Tertiary, quaternary, or quinary

Where are services? From local to global More developed = more service jobs “ Post-industrial” economies

From local to global

More developed = more service jobs

“ Post-industrial” economies

 

 

 

Central place theory How are services distributed? Why does a regular pattern exist? How are large and small cities connected? Central place: market center for region

How are services distributed?

Why does a regular pattern exist?

How are large and small cities connected?

Central place: market center for region

Central place theory Range: how far are you willing to travel for a service? Threshold: how many customers do you need? Assume shortest distance possible Threshold < range Market area, not city size, matters

Range: how far are you willing to travel for a service?

Threshold: how many customers do you need?

Assume shortest distance possible

Threshold < range

Market area, not city size, matters

 

Central place theory Hexagonal market areas Cover all space No overlap First order: largest threshold and range Second order, etc.

Hexagonal market areas

Cover all space

No overlap

First order: largest threshold and range

Second order, etc.

First order Range

First order Range

First order New range

First order Second order

First order Second order

First order Second order New range

First order Second order Third order New range

First order Second order Third order

First order Second order Third order

-- 179.2 0 0-1 6 94.0 89.6 3 2-3 5 49.6 44.8 9 10 4 23.6 22.4 39 39 3 10.3 11.2 153 154 2 Actual spacing Theoretical spacing Actual number Theoretical number Order

Central place theory Accessibility based on time, not distance Administrative principle Political boundaries affect consumers Lower taxes, more permissive rules

Accessibility based on time, not distance

Administrative principle

Political boundaries affect consumers

Lower taxes, more permissive rules

So what? Model for regional development Explains decline as well as growth Neighborhood or city scale The point is not the hexagons, but the hierarchy and interconnectedness of places

Model for regional development

Explains decline as well as growth

Neighborhood or city scale

The point is not the hexagons, but the hierarchy and interconnectedness of places

 

Transportation Enables all other economic activity Derived demand Important in its own right Accessibility: existence of opportunities Mobility: ability to get there Equity of accessibility and mobility

Enables all other economic activity

Derived demand

Important in its own right

Accessibility: existence of opportunities

Mobility: ability to get there

Equity of accessibility and mobility

 

Transportation geography Shrinking distance Changing technology Changing accessibility and mobility Impact on landscape

Shrinking distance

Changing technology

Changing accessibility and mobility

Impact on landscape

 

Transportation geography New technology: container shipping No break-of-bulk Less labor needed Less “slippage” Concentration on a few ports

New technology: container shipping

No break-of-bulk

Less labor needed

Less “slippage”

Concentration on a few ports

Rotterdam

 

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