Class Notes on Test Development

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Information about Class Notes on Test Development

Published on December 12, 2008

Author: sanchezjiana


Test Development : Test Development ED489 Evaluation Velma A. Sablan, Professor of Education instructor Assessment Matrix : Assessment Matrix Learning Targets : Learning Targets Also referred to as “instructional objectives” of a lesson or unit of instruction What you want the students to learn, to know, or to be able to do. Must be clearly stated in your unit or lesson goals and objectives. You must know what you are going to teach, the scope of the material you want to cover, and how you plan to teach it. Not defining learning targets leads to chaos, not meeting standards, confusion among the parents and frustration for you. Setting up a year long plan for learning targets using standards to guide you and the general strategy you will use, is very useful! There are generally 6 types of Learning Targets : There are generally 6 types of Learning Targets Knowledge Facts Figures Reasoning/Critical Thinking From comparisons to evaluation---Bloom’s Taxonomy Goes beyond what is factual-synthesis of thinking Skill Ability to DO something Product Ability to create something Very good for tactile-kinesthetic learners Affect Attitude towards learning Feelings about how learning content is taught and assessed Assessment Method:Select Response Format : Assessment Method:Select Response Format Multiple Choice True-False Matching Fill in the blank(s) Short answer One answer and one answer only is selected/chosen by the student. Guessing/Trying is encouraged Can teach students strategies in doing any SR type of assessment device Limitations for reasoning target, products, and skill development. Multiple Choice and True/False are the most useful for ESL students Use of points and accuracy scores/percentages Can measure students content knowledge, compare performance against the performance of the students in the class, and teachers can do across class comparisons if they protect the reliability Assessment Method:Essay : Assessment Method:Essay Requires student is write language (narrative). Give you an idea of spelling skills, ability to form sentences, paragraphs, use of correct verb tense, and other writing mechanics Essay questions should be developed, keeping in mind that the more information you provide without giving away the correct response, the more likely the students will be able to write about what they know. Develop the SCORE KEY- number of points you will award for each essay question and key themes you will be looking for point award, i.e. 10 points for the essay question, 5 for factual information, 5 for information synthesis. Be clear on issues of grading content versus grammatical form! What are you really trying to measure? Developing essay questions with students is also useful and helps students to direct their studies and increase likelihood for success. Assessment Method:PERFORMANCE : Assessment Method:PERFORMANCE Performance assessments are those in which students demonstrate their knowledge or skill. Can be as broad as gross motor skill development, i.e. swimming to academic skill, i.e. reading, spelling, calculating Is often referred to as AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT and typical examples are portfolios, journals, logs, role plays, etc. The use of RUBRICS are particularly useful in performance assessments. Rating scales and checklists are also useful What is a rubric? : What is a rubric? A rubric is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a student's performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. A rubric is an authentic assessment tool used to measure students' work. Authentic assessment is used to evaluate students' work by measuring the product according to real-life criteria. Rubrics are useful in performance assessment strategies. They can be developed with the help of students, so student can feel “involved” in the assessment process. Rubrics: Criteria & Expectations : Rubrics: Criteria & Expectations Although the same criteria are considered, expectations vary according to one's level of expertise. The performance level of a novice is expected be lower than that of an expert and would be reflected in different standards. For example, in evaluating a story, a first-grade author may not be expected to write a coherent paragraph to earn a high evaluation. A tenth grader would need to write coherent paragraphs in order to earn high marks. Rubrics: Usefulness : Rubrics: Usefulness A rubric is a working guide for students and teachers, usually handed out before the assignment begins in order to get students to think about the criteria on which their work will be judged. A rubric enhances the quality of direct instruction. Rubrics: Areas for Use : Rubrics: Areas for Use Rubrics can be created for any content area including math, science, history, writing, foreign languages, drama, art, music, and even cooking! Once developed, they can be modified easily for various grade levels. Why use rubrics? : Why use rubrics? Many experts believe that rubrics improve students' end products and therefore increase learning. When teachers evaluate papers or projects, they know implicitly what makes a good final product and why. When students receive rubrics beforehand, they understand how they will be evaluated and can prepare accordingly. Developing a grid and making it available as a tool for students' use will provide the scaffolding necessary to improve the quality of their work and increase their knowledge. Prepare rubrics as guides students can use to build on current knowledge. Consider rubrics as part of your planning time, not as an additional time commitment to your preparation. Advantages of Rubrics : Advantages of Rubrics Teachers can increase the quality of their direct instruction by providing focus, emphasis, and attention to particular details as a model for students. Students have explicit guidelines regarding teacher expectations. Students can use rubrics as a tool to develop their abilities. Teachers can reuse rubrics for various activities. Some Principles of Rubrics: : Some Principles of Rubrics: Rubrics are texts which are visible signs of agreed-upon values; they cannot contain all the nuances of the evaluation community's values, but they do contain the central expressions of those values. Rubrics need to be built; this is true whether the rubric is for a group or individual evaluation. Some Principles of Rubrics: : Some Principles of Rubrics: 3. Rubrics need to grow out of and be accompanied by discussion, because rubrics are only visible agreed-upon values. 4. Rubrics can be changed by discussion; they are not permanent; different prompts. rhetorical situations, or evaluation priorities can all lead to the adjustment of a rubric. Some Principles of Rubrics: : Some Principles of Rubrics: 5. Rubrics and the discussion of rubrics bring to the surface assumed and unspoken values; this surfacing is very important so that students can learn more about writing and evaluative priorities. Some Principles of Rubrics: : Some Principles of Rubrics: Rubrics should be available to students in some form: guidelines, lists of criteria, or the entire rubric itself; students should be able to discuss the guidelines/rubric and get a feel for the nuances of evaluation. Let’s try using a fun rubric that some students developed! Did you bring your homemade cookies? Reflection : Reflection Do you think you would have made your cookies different if you had known the clear criteria ahead? Do you think the rubric served its purpose? How would you change this activity to make it more meaningful? If you were given this rubric prior to making your cookies, what would you have done differently? What thoughts do you have about using rubrics as an assessment tool? ANSWER AND PUT YOUR PAPER IN YOUR PORTFOLIO FOR EXIT INTERVIEWS : ) Scoring Example for a Rubric : Scoring Example for a Rubric Level  4 - Accomplished  3 - Competent  2 - Developing  1 – Beginning Remember! The numbers here can not be meaningfully manipulated, i.e. calculating an average (Mean). The scoring is qualitative and assessment feedback is in narrative form. Assessment Method:Oral Presentation : Assessment Method:Oral Presentation Very useful for students with learning disabilities or are ESL. Accommodates students with language processing deficits Can be timed or untimed Use of a tape recorder and earphones are very useful for in-class option Time consuming if you plan to use with a whole class, even if you use an abbreviated assessment tool. Use of a checklist, rubric, or rating scale is useful is assessing Assessment Method:Observation : Assessment Method:Observation Technically, this assessment method is to assess student ability to observe Often used in science labs and observations are recorded in a journal Can be structured or unstructured Rubrics, checklists, rating scales, and logbooks are particularly useful Assessment Method:Self Assessment : Assessment Method:Self Assessment The most powerful assessment strategy if used correctly. Encourages student to be honest about his/her overall effort Allows student to think about and analyze what should have, could have, would have happened to improve performance. Teacher must be careful with bias, both the students and their own. Standards of performance and/or performance expectations are very helpful and useful

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