class 13 emotions and cognition

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Information about class 13 emotions and cognition
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Published on December 16, 2008

Author: aSGuest6736

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Emotions and Cognition : Emotions and Cognition Class 13 Mid-term Review and Mid-Term : Mid-term Review and Mid-Term 10/19 Mid-term Review Bring notes, copies of Powerpoint slides 10/24 Mid-term Depression and Health : Depression and Health Depression: 15% of all people get seriously depressed Depression ? longer hospital stays, longer recovery rates Depression-based suicide kill as many as heart attacks Depression ? brain damage Weaker memory, reduced ability to focus Depression ? atrophy of hippocampus Atrophy due to “hypercortisolemia” Hostile Personality and Health : Hostile Personality and Health Hostile Personality IS NOT: Angry all the time Aggressive all the time Hostile Personality IS: Way of perceiving the world * Distrustful * Cynical * Suspicious * Vigilant Highly stable trait: Correlation over 4 yrs, r = .84 Which gender is more prone to Hostile Personality? Men Hostility Scale (Cook and Medley, 1954)[answered “YES”/”NO”] : Hostility Scale (Cook and Medley, 1954)[answered “YES”/”NO”] Hostility and Coronary Heart Disease Among MDs Barefoot, et al., 1983 : Hostility and Coronary Heart Disease Among MDs Barefoot, et al., 1983 MD Survival Rates Over 25 Years:Low Hostile vs. High Hostile : MD Survival Rates Over 25 Years:Low Hostile vs. High Hostile Pathway From Hostility to Heart Disease : Pathway From Hostility to Heart Disease Appraisal of threat higher ? defensive mode (fight) ? more cardiac output ? ? cortisol ? atherosclerosis Informational Value of Emotions to Health : Informational Value of Emotions to Health Mood affects recognition and interpretation of own symptoms   Pos mood ? attn. outward ? less focused on symptoms   Neg mood ? attn. inward ? more focus on symptoms The Dangers and Benefits of Being Happy : The Dangers and Benefits of Being Happy Happiness as Health Risk Happiness as Health Benefit Illusion of Invulnerability Blind to danger signs More health-promoting behaviors Willing to risk upsetting diagnoses Less defensive about hearing health risk information Psychoneuroimmunology and AIDS : Psychoneuroimmunology and AIDS Psychoneuroimmunology: New inter-disciplinary area that looks at how psychological states affect the body’s resistance to illness. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome HIV “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. Psycho-social Aspects of AIDS : Psycho-social Aspects of AIDS Why do some people who get HIV infections acquire AIDS sooner than do others? (Cole, 2000). 1. Sample: gay men who acquire HIV at about the same time. 2. Looks at whether disclosed or hid gay identity, HIV status  3. “Hiders” show AIDS symptoms sooner than do disclosers. WHY? Why Do “In Closet” Gays Develop AIDS Sooner? : Why Do “In Closet” Gays Develop AIDS Sooner? Suppressors tend to be “sensitizers”, easily disturbed by any kind of event, especially social events. Is it that suppressing was itself a stressor, stress ? illness, therefore suppressing leads to quicker AIDS onset? NO A. (Hide Gay Identity) B. (AIDS ONSET) How Stress Hastens AIDS Onset : How Stress Hastens AIDS Onset 1. “T” cells important immuno-agent  2. Cells sprout molecular “hand holds”, like Velcro, at times.  3. HIV uses these hand-holds to attack cells.  4. Researchers artificially induce hand-holds by using harsh laboratory chemicals. 5. Cole asks: What kinds of natural chemicals have same effect?  6. Clues: * AIDS faster among stressed vs. non-stressed * Stress releases nor-epinephrine 7. Finds: exposing healthy T cells to nor-epi ? hand-holds. Bower Mood and Cognition Research : Bower Mood and Cognition Research 1. Memory for past events 2. Learning 3. Higher Order Functions   * Free associations   * Fantasies/Imagination   * Snap judgments   * Event likelihood   * Social impressions  * Self judgment State Dependent Memory : State Dependent Memory Memory associated with an emotional state will be easier to retrieve when you are in that same emotional state. Example: Learn FACT A when happy, easier to remember FACT A when happy.   Memory associated with an emotional state will be harder to retrieve when you are in an opposed emotional state. Example: Learn FACT A when happy, harder to remember FACT A when sad. Scuba Diver Study : Scuba Diver Study Learning and Recall in Same/Different Moods (Percent Recalled) : Learning and Recall in Same/Different Moods (Percent Recalled) Learn 16 words when happy Learn 16 words when sad Placed in happy or sad mood. Asked to recall words from happy/sad list Number of Happy and Sad Memories Remembered by Happy and Sad Subjects : Number of Happy and Sad Memories Remembered by Happy and Sad Subjects Recall happy/sad memories Mood induced by thinking pos/neg thoughts Ss report life events of past week Judges (blind) rate events as pos/neg How does induced mood affect personal memory? How State Dependent Memory Works : How State Dependent Memory Works The Associative Network Model of Memory Mind organizes memories, learning around central themes. What’s in your house? VS What’s in bedroom, kitchen… Emotions work as organizing themes. Provide memory clues: Expressions, actions, arousal, ideas.. Mood state determines the kind of “organizer” available Happy mood: happy things available, sad things not Sad mood: Sad things available, happy things not Time Spent Looking at Happy/Sad Scenesby Happy/Sad Subjects : Time Spent Looking at Happy/Sad Scenesby Happy/Sad Subjects Ss look are in happy/sad moods Ss look at happy or sad pictures. How long (in seconds) Ss spend looking at happy/sad pictures. Number of Happy/Sad Scenes Recalled by Ss Who Study Scenes in Happy/Sad Mood : Number of Happy/Sad Scenes Recalled by Ss Who Study Scenes in Happy/Sad Mood Number of Happy/Sad Story Incidents Recalled by Ss Who Read Story in Happy/Sad Mood : Number of Happy/Sad Story Incidents Recalled by Ss Who Read Story in Happy/Sad Mood State Dependent Memory and Mood Congruent Learning : State Dependent Memory and Mood Congruent Learning State-Dependent Memory: How mood helps/hurts retrieval of things that are already there. Mood-Congruent Learning: How mood affects they way in which new information is brought into memory to begin with. Probability of Recalling a Prompt due to Strength of Emotion Generated by the Memory Associated to the Prompt : Probability of Recalling a Prompt due to Strength of Emotion Generated by the Memory Associated to the Prompt Procedure for Emotional Intensity and Learning Study: Session 1 : Procedure for Emotional Intensity and Learning Study: Session 1 a. Subjects are hypnotized b. Ss trained to evoke three different levels of either happiness, sadness, or anger Procedure for Emotional Intensity and Learning Study: Session 2 : Procedure for Emotional Intensity and Learning Study: Session 2 a. Ss access mood they were trained to evoke b. Imagine self in 4 happy scenes, 4 sad scenes, 4 angry scenes narrated to Ss by the experimenter 1. At emotion level 1 (lowest) 2. At emotion level 2 ( middle) 3. At emotion level 3 (highest) c. Shift to neutral mood d. Remove from hypnotic trance e. Filler task for 5 minutes f. Free recall of gist of episodes Average free-recall of happy, angry, sad episodes by happy, angry, sad subjects : Average free-recall of happy, angry, sad episodes by happy, angry, sad subjects Average Free-Recall For Episodes Under Low, Medium, Or High Intensity Emotion : Average Free-Recall For Episodes Under Low, Medium, Or High Intensity Emotion Mood and Visual Processing : Mood and Visual Processing MM MM MM MM MM MM MM Mood and Visual Processing : Mood and Visual Processing Happy: More global, see “big picture” Sad: More local, focus on the details.

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