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Civil War Lecture

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Information about Civil War Lecture
Education

Published on February 11, 2009

Author: AimeeTeach

Source: authorstream.com

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Civil War Lecture : Civil War Lecture Colors of the 23rd New York Infantry http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brady-photos/images/colors-23-ny.gif Pictures from the Library of Congress Unless Otherwise Noted: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor : Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor April 12-13, 1861 While Americans were arguing over the rights and wrongs of secession, the Confederacy was busy seizing federal buildings, forts and arsenals Lincoln needed to resupply troops at Ft. Sumter without aggravating the Confederates April 6, 1861 Lincoln said he was sending supplies April 12, 4:30AM Confederate forces opened fire 34 hours later Anderson surrendered the fort Bombardment of Fort Sumter Map of US : Map of US Choosing sides was painful for many Southern military officers They were torn between loyalty to their states and to the army About 1/3 of the career officers in the US Army resigned to fight for the Confederacy Robert E. Lee was offered field command of the entire Union army but turned it down saying, “I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children…” Union Blockade : Union Blockade Union strategy to block all Confederate ports A blockade would prevent the South from selling cotton overseas and importing needed war equipment and supplies Blockade runners were mostly private ships that sped into and out of the blocked ports around the blockade Confederate cotton exports were reduced by 95% http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/17/Anaconda_Plan.jpg The Civil War Soldier : The Civil War Soldier Most were under the age of 21; over 250,000 were 16-years-old or younger Most came from lower socioeconomic groups; wanted to seek adventure or escape boredom of farm life Rations (portions of food) were generally better for Northern soldiers than Southern soldiers Sutler wagons followed troops, and sold soldiers a variety of goods and foods; their items were very expensive, however The Civil War Soldier : The Civil War Soldier Portrait of Pvt. Sampson Altman, Jr., Company C, 29th Regiment Georgia Volunteers, C.S.A. Pvt. Altman fought in the battle of Shiloh, died April 23, 1863 from disease. Portrait of Pvt. Ira Fish, 150th New York Infantry, U.S.A. Wounded at Gettysburg The First Battle of Bull Run : The First Battle of Bull Run Bull Run, Va. Federal cavalry at Sudley Ford The First Battle of Bull Run : The First Battle of Bull Run Summer 1861, Washington D.C. was full of soldiers who had answered Lincoln’s call to arms Americans were ready for a fight even though the army was very green On July 16, 1861 35,000 troops marched towards Virginia 25 miles out of D.C they encountered 20,000 Confederate troops beside a river known as Bull Run Sightseers from Washington set out picnics on the edge of the battlefield so they could watch the anticipated Union victory The First Battle of Bull Run : The First Battle of Bull Run At first it seemed that the Union would break Confederate lines By afternoon it was clear that the Union attack had failed and the troops began to withdraw The sightseers panicked and ran for the same road as the retreating soldiers – which created a massive traffic jam! Many Southerners now believed that the war was almost over Instead, it awakened the North to reality – this would not be a short war Antietam, 1862 : Antietam, 1862 Antietam, Md. Confederate dead by a fence on the Hagerstown road Antietam, 1862 : Antietam, 1862 September 17,1862 in Maryland 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours of savage combat Despite the casualties of the nearly 100,000 engaged, both armies stubbornly held their ground as the sun set The next day the opposing armies gathered their wounded and buried their dead That night Lee’s army withdrew back across the Potomac to Virginia, ending Lee’s first invasion into the North Lee’s retreat gave Lincoln the opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation Now the war had the dual purpose of saving the Union and ending slavery The Emancipation Proclamation : The Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862 Gave the Confederacy three months to end the war, if not the slaves in “states of rebellion” would be free Deadline was January 1, 1863 The Confederate leaders continued the war and the slaves were declared free by the United States government in 1863 Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 : Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 Gettysburg, Pa. The center of the Federal position viewed from Little Round Top X Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 : Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 Turning point in Civil War Referred to as the "High Water Mark of the Confederacy", it was the culmination of the second and most ambitious invasion of the North by General Robert E. Lee and the "Army of Northern Virginia“ Union victory Estimated casualties: Union: 23,000 Confederacy: 20,000-25,000    After this battle the Union army began to defeat the Confederacy in more war theaters Chickamauga, 1863 : Chickamauga, 1863 September 1863 Seven miles south of Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga was major railroad center Union troops were driven back to Chattanooga; Confederates did not follow-up on their victory Union reinforcements later recaptured Chattanooga Chattanooga, Tenn. Confederate prisoners at railroad depot African American Soldiers in the Union Army : African American Soldiers in the Union Army In 1864 Lincoln ordered Union recruiters to accept black soldiers Some 178,985 enlisted men served in black regiments during the Civil War About half of these men were runaway slaves The 54th Massachusetts, led by Col. Robert Shaw (a white officer) led an assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina in 1863; the battle proved the value of black troops (watch the movie Glory) 3,500 black men from Georgia fought in the Union Army In 1864, Lincoln successfully urged Congress to give African American soldiers equal pay The Confederate government in 1865 passed a law allowing black slaves to fight in Southern armies; the war ended before a black regiment was organized African American Soldiers in the Union Army : African American Soldiers in the Union Army Arlington, Va. Band of 107th U.S. Colored Infantry at Fort Corcoran Aiken's Landing, Va. African-American soldiers resting near the Aiken house, view looking toward the house African Americans Soldiers in the Union Army : African Americans Soldiers in the Union Army District of Columbia. Company E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, at Fort Lincoln Civil War PrisonsAndersonville : Civil War PrisonsAndersonville Both North and South had prisons for captured soldiers; thousands of men on both sides died in these prisons Andersonville Prison, in southwest Georgia, was overcrowded, and offered poor food, contaminated water, and poor sanitation; 13,700 Union soldiers are buried there Captain Henry Wirtz, Andersonville Prison commander, was later hanged for “excessive cruelty” Andersonville is now home to the National Prisoner of War Museum Andersonville : Andersonville Andersonville prison was the deadliest prisoner of war camp during the Civil War. Over 40% of all Union prisoners of war who died during the Civil War perished at Andersonville. Andersonville Prison, Camp Sumter, Ga., as it appeared August 1st 1864 when it contained 35,000 prisoners of war / drawn from memory by Thomas O'Dea, late private Co. E. 16th Regt. Maine Infi. Vols ; on stone by T. J. S. Landis. War Casualties : War Casualties Wounded Soldiers in Hospital http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brady-photos/images/wounded-in-hospital.gif War Casualties : War Casualties Wounded Soldiers Under Trees after Spotsylvania, 1864 http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brady-photos/images/wounded-spotsylvania.gif War Casualties : War Casualties By 1863 enthusiasm for the war faded as many people lot loved ones Two factors for high death rates: new weapons (Napoleon canon and rifled muskets) and disease (most deadly) The new weapons did not immediately lead to new military tactics As casualties increased tactics began to change Women in the War Effort : Women in the War Effort Food, items for clothes, and basic items were in short supply, especially in the South Staples like flour, coffee, and sugar were very expensive or hard to acquire Women tried to keep their families fed and sheltered despite the difficulties Many fought disguised as men; others served as spies; many worked in factories Female nurses were much valued Clara Barton – American Red Cross Women in the War Effort : Women in the War Effort Fredericksburg, Va. Nurses and officers of the U.S. Sanitary Commission Destruction in the South : Destruction in the South For the first three years of the war Lincoln struggled to find a commander who would take Richmond and destroy Lee’s army In 1864 he finally found Ulysses S. Grant who believed, “The art of war is simple enough. Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike at him as hard as you can and as often as you can, and keep moving on.” Grant lost so many men that he was called “The Butcher” yet he pressed on and was successful Lincoln needed to win the upcoming presidential election, and to do that he relied on grant’s most trusted general: William Tecumseh Sherman September 1, 1864 Sherman captured Atlanta, a key Confederate manufacturing and transportation center Atlanta, Ga. Ruins of depot, blown up on Sherman's departure The Atlanta Campaign : The Atlanta Campaign Late Spring/Early Summer 1864: Sherman’s Union Army fought series of battles against Joseph E. Johnston’s Confederate Army Confederates continued to retreat further southward into Georgia June 1864: Sherman attacked Johnston at Kennesaw Mountain; Sherman lost but continued toward Atlanta July 1864: John Bell Hood replaced Johnston, battled Sherman, then concentrated defenses in Atlanta Slide 29: Atlanta, Ga. Gen. William T. Sherman on horseback at Federal Fort No. 7 (Sept.-Nov. 1864) After three and a half months of incessant maneuvering and much hard fighting, Sherman forced Hood to abandon the munitions center of the Confederacy. Sherman remained there, resting his war-worn men and accumulating supplies, for nearly two and a half months. The Battle of Atlanta : The Battle of Atlanta Sherman surrounded the city and laid siege Hood wanted to lure Sherman into the city to fight, but that didn’t work Fighting continued during July and August 1864 Hood and Atlanta’s citizens finally vacate the city on September 1 Sherman burns the city in mid-November then begins his march toward Savannah and the sea Sherman Captures Savannah : Sherman Captures Savannah The dispatches of Gen. Sherman and Gen. Foster are as follows: Savannah, Ga., Dec. 22. To His Excellency, President Lincoln: I beg to present you as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah, with one hundred and fifty heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about twenty-five thousand bales of cotton. (Signed.) W. T. Sherman, Major-General http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1222.html Destruction in the South : Destruction in the South With success in Atlanta, Sherman vowed to “make Georgia howl.” He marched through the state all the way to Savannah destroying everything in his path: railroads, houses, farms By the end of his campaign Sherman had passed through 425 miles of territory and had destroyed $100 million worth of property Sherman believed in “total war” – the best way to defeat the enemy army is to crush the will of the civilians who sustained that fighting force “We cannot change the hearts of these people in the South, but we can make war so terrible…and make them so sick of war that generations [will] pass away before they again appeal to it.” The Civil War Ends : The Civil War Ends Lincoln is reelected by 54% of the vote and carrying all but 3 states January 13, 1865: Fort Fisher in North Carolina captured; the last Confederate blockade-running port General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Virginia cannot defeat Union General U.S. Grant at Petersburg Lee told his officers, “there is nothing left for me to do but to go and see General Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths.” The Surrender of Lee : The Surrender of Lee Picture taken from Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: IV: The Road to Appomattox , p.736 The surrender terms offered to Lee were generous: the soldiers were free to return home with their personal possessions as well as their horses AND Grant offered to provide 25,000 rations to feed the hungry Confederate men As Lee left the courthouse to return to his troops, Union soldiers began to cheer wildly and fire their canon. Grant ordered them to stop. “The war is over,” he told his men. “The rebels are our countrymen again.” Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees and is eventually captured in Irwinville, Georgia Lincoln : Lincoln On March 4, 1865 Lincoln was sworn in for a second time and ended his inaugural address with these words: “With malice towards none; with charity for all… let us strive to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow; and his orphan – to do all which may achieve and cherish a just ad lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations.” After his speech Lincoln said, “I am a tired man. Sometimes I think I am the tiredest man on earth.” Lincoln : Lincoln Publicly he endured abuse when things went badly for the Union and he lived with many death threats Personally he had to deal with the death of his son and his wife’s growing mental illness He dreamt that he had been assassinated on April 13th, 1865 On April 14th he and his wife spent a rare evening of relaxation at Ford’s Theater. He had told Mary earlier in the day, “I have never felt so happy in my life.” During the show, an assassin slipped into the presidential box and shot Lincoln – who died at 7:22AM the next day Bibliography : Bibliography http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/gettysburg/getty4.aspx www.nps.gov http://rs6.loc.gov/ammem/index.html http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1222.html Georgia and the American Experience History Alive! Civil War Unit

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