CityFlocks: Designing Social Navigation for Urban Mobile Information Systems

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Information about CityFlocks: Designing Social Navigation for Urban Mobile Information...

Published on February 20, 2014

Author: kavasmlikon



CityFlocks is a mobile system enabling visitors and new residents in a city to tap into the knowledge and experiences of local residents, so as to gather information about their new environment. Its design specifically aims to lower existing barriers of access and facilitate social navigation in urban places. This paper presents a design case study of a mobile system prototype that offers an easy way for information seeking new residents or visitors to access tacit knowledge from local people about their new community. In various user tests we evaluate two general user interaction alternatives – direct and indirect social navigation – and analyse under what conditions which interaction method works better for people using a mobile device to socially navigate urban environments. The outcomes are relevant for the user interaction design of future mobile information systems that leverage off of a social navigation approach.

Longitude / Latitude  g / Coord. (‐27.46758, 153.027892) Name: „Coffee Palace“ +  folksonomy tags Rating from R ti f 1‐10 Comment: „This place  serves the best coffee in  town!“ Contact Information (email, phone, mobile,  (email, phone, mobile, SMS) CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Urban Public Places CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Urban Public Places Mark Bilandzic Ludwig‐Maximilians‐Universität München

Does this phone really tell you WHERE to go…?! …or rather how to get somewhere, once you have figured out where to go? CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 2

Social Navigation: Physical Objects Provide Visible Interaction History CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 3

Social Navigation: Physical Objects Provide Visible Interaction History CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 4

Social Navigation: Physical Objects Provide Visible Interaction History CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 5

Community Driven Services vs. Professional Information Services Classic Mobile Information Services are mostly controlled by a single entity Profession Information Provider Profession Information Provider CityFlocks is controlled and fed with information by „The Wisdom of the Crowds“ CityFlocks CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 6

CityFlocks* Workflow: Three Simple Steps to Gather Social Navigational Help 1 2 Tag Search (folksonomy) 3 Relevant Places + Average Rating User Created Comments +  Contact Information *URL: CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 7

Community Driven Mobile Information Systems:  Designing for Social Navigation I # of comments  left at a place/  local service  Average rating of a place/ local service *URL: CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 8

Community Driven Mobile Information Systems:  Designing for Social Navigation II Voice link to an  expert resident (direct) SMS to an  expert resident expert resident (direct) Location based  user comment (indirect) Context information • Information Provider • Message Meta‐Info *URL: CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 9

Community Driven Mobile Information Systems:  Designing for Social Navigation II Context  information   about the expert  user Link to see  further areas of  further areas of expertise *URL: CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 10

CityFlocks improves Social Navigation using Locative Media and Mobile Web 2.0 Technology Mobile Spatial Interaction Location Based Services Location Based Services Context Awareness Virtual Post‐Its CityFlocks /  Mobile Web 2.0 Mobile Web 2.0* Social Navigation Web 2.0 Wisdom of the Crowds User Generated Content Knowledge Sharing Folksonomy Social Capital Social Capital Geotagging AJAX * A. Jaokar and T. Fish, Mobile Web 2.0 CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 11

Focus Group Sessions – How do people make use of Social Navigation? CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 12

User Interface Design: Iterative Paper Prototyping CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 13

CityFlocks Connects People who Have not Known Each Other Before Is such a social navigation system better than information from professional sources? Do users rather prefer direct‐ or indirect link to local residents? In which situation? CityFlocks  Finds an expert‐resident search for keywords e.g.‚fast‐food‘ 1 User Comments 2 Voice‐Link / SMS Visitor Local Resident CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 14

CityFlocks‘ Research Questions CityFlocks […], eine Art touristischer Empfehlungsdienst: Einheimische versehen ihre Stadt mit Annotationen über Clubs, Restaurants und Freizeitaktivitäten, und Besucher der Stadt können , diese Informationen abrufen und sogar die Verfasser kontaktieren. Schon bei diesem Beispiel zeigt sich das doppelte Gesicht der neuen Technik. Will ich wirklich von einem Touristen angerufen werden, der sich für das Nachtleben meiner Heimatstadt interessiert? Christoph Drösser, DIE ZEIT, Nr. 39  (Germany National Newspaper) CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 15

The CityFlocks Relational Database Model CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 16

Publications Following publications form parts of this thesis: Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2008, forthcoming). Social Navigation and Local Folksonomies: Technical and  Design Considerations for an Urban Mobile Information System. In S. Hatzipanagos & S. Warburton (Eds.),  Social Software and Developing Community Ontologies. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Bilandzic, M., Foth, M., & De Luca, A. (2008, Feb 25 27). CityFlocks: Designing Social Navigation for Urban  Bilandzic, M., Foth, M., & De Luca, A. (2008, Feb 25‐27). CityFlocks: Designing Social Navigation for Urban Mobile Information Systems. Paper to be presented at the ACM SIGCHI Designing Interactive Systems (DIS)  Conference, Cape Town, South Africa. Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M . (2007, Sep 3‐5). CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Urban Public  Places. Paper presented at the Locative Media Summer Conference, University of Siegen, Germany. Places Paper presented at the Locative Media Summer Conference University of Siegen Germany Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2007, Sep 5‐6). Transferring Web 2.0 Paradigms to a Mobile System for Social  Navigation in Public Inner‐City Places. Paper presented at the Towards a Social Science of Web 2.0  Conference, York, UK. Klaebe, H., Foth, M., Burgess, J., & Bilandzic, M. (2007) Digital Storytelling and History Lines: Community  Engagement in a Master‐Planned Development. In Proceedings 13th International Conference on Virtual  Systems and Multimedia (VSMM'07), Brisbane. Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2007) Urban computing and mobile devices: Mobile Location Bookmarking. IEEE  Pervasive Computing, 6(3), pp. 53‐57. CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 17

Contact Details Thank you! Contact: Mark Bilandzic +49 170 6130 306 CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 18

Methodology Focus Group Interviews How do people make use of Social Navigation in their everyday life? What obstacles do they experience when navigating socially? Requirements and design implications for system architecture User Survey Are A residents willing t share th i t it k id t illi to h their tacit knowledge? l d ? With whom and with whom not? Which h Whi h channels d residents prefer t provide l do id t f to id access to their local knowledge? Design implication for communication channels Paper Prototyping Sketch typical use cases Refine user interface, user interaction and screen flow Design implications for user interaction and interface design Iterative Development Implementation Mobile web application User Study - Evaluation of a mobile information system that follows the social navigation approach How does the system perform compared to professional information sources? Which concept, direct- or indirect social navigation, works better as a design and interaction approach and under which conditions? Which communication modes do people prefer when using social navigation on a mobile device? CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 19

CityFlocks is a Meshup of Folksonomy‐Tags, User Comments and Geographic Coordinates Tags (ice-cream, (ice-cream desert, coffee) User Comment „This place serves the best ice-cream ice cream in town!“ Urban Place / Service Longitude / Latitude (-27.46758, 153.027892) 153 027892) CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 20

CityFlocks‘ Research Questions CityFlocks […], eine Art touristischer Empfehlungsdienst: Einheimische versehen ihre Stadt mit Annotationen über Clubs, Restaurants und Freizeitaktivitäten, und Besucher der Stadt können diese Informationen abrufen und sogar die Verfasser kontaktieren. Schon bei diesem Beispiel zeigt sich das doppelte Gesicht der neuen Technik. Will ich wirklich von einem Touristen angerufen werden, der sich für das Nachtleben meiner Heimatstadt interessiert? Christoph Drösser, DIE ZEIT, Nr. 39  (Germany National Newspaper) CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 21

Selected Area for the Field Study: The Kelvin Grove Urban Village, Brisbane, Australia CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 22

CitiyFlock‘s Database Model uses Folksonomy to Organise User Created Contents Users define particular places, submit comments to these places and describe them with tags. CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 23

Database Model Supports Various Communication Channels and Prevents Privacy Issues Users can specify for each place individually if and how they wish to provide direct advice CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 24

A User Generated CityFlocks Message Consists of 5 Information Layers Longitude / Latitude Coord. (‐27.46758, 153.027892) Name: „Coffee Palace“ +  folksonomy tags Rating from 1‐10 Comment: „This place serves  the best coffee in town!“ Contact Information (email, phone, mobile, SMS) CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 25

Applying the Folksonomy Paradigm for a Mobile Service Web 2.0 Mobile Web 2.0 Tagging • • • Photos (Flickr!) Videos (YouTube) Weblinks (Delicious) Weblinks (Delicious) Geo‐Tagging Geo Tagging Folksonomy • • • Longitudes / Latitudes Urban places Local services Local services CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 26

Different Stylesheets make CityFlocks easily accessible via a Web UI or a Mobile Device Using the same backend system, different stylesheets are used to optimize the representation for  computer‐ and mobile device screens CityFlocks – Database/Backend Stylesheet ‐ Web Stylesheet ‐ Mobile CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 27

CityFlocks is Cross System Compatible: Separating Content and Representation CityFlocks CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 28

Social Navigation: Physical Objects Provide Visible Interaction History CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 29

Social Navigation: Physical Objects Provide Visible Interaction History Graffiti on election campaign posters [] CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 30

Social Navigation: Physical Objects Provide Visible Interaction History Graffities in inner‐cities [] CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 31

Local Services in a City: When Visitors Only Could Know What Locals Know… excellent coffee cheap tztz friendly “ …we just walked through the town and find the place  we just walked through the town and find the place with the most people, you know, that's where the  good food is! We would just pick the busiest  place...” or look around for the busiest shop the place “… or look around for the busiest shop, the place  where the most people go to is probably the  best food. I've tried it a couple of times, it  mostly turns out to be good” Which cafe would your rather go to? CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 32

Web Users Upload Location Based Content that can be Requested by Mobile CityFlocks Users CityFlocks Database Data Input Google Maps Web User Interface Data Output Mobile Device CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 33

Designing Urban Information Systems with the Collective Intelligence of Local Residents The Wisdom of the Crowds CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 34

CityFlocks provides two different channels to let people access the pool of social knowledge Local Residents Location Based Comments Contact Information CityFlocks ‐ Server y CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 35

Focus Group Outcomes People use three different sources to get recommendation about local services in a new city Imagine you're new in a city and you want to find a good restaurant. What do you do…? Direct Social Navigation “I think I would ask the local people. I would  “I thi k I ld k th l l l I ld probably go to a shop and ask the local business  people” “I think just about anything I would do to be  honest, my first call would be other people,  either my friends or colleagues” h f d ll ” “I’ll ask friends who live there. How is it, where I  go. Friends first, then websites” Indirect Social Navigation • “ “ …we just walked through the town and find the  j t lk d th h th t d fi d th place with the most people, you know, that's where  the good food is! We would just pick the busiest  place...” Local Service Recommendations • “… or look around for the busiest shop, the  or look around for the busiest shop the place where the most people go to is probably  the best food. I've tried it a couple of times, it  mostly turns out to be good” “Websites and even information centres. Booklets, restaurant guides” “Outside Australia, definitely Lonely Planet!” “I would probably Google it, if there was a language barrier with the local  people, I would just look it up in the internet people I would just look it up in the internet”, “…I go to Wikipedia I go to Wikipedia” Professional Information Sources CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 36

Designing a Mobile System to facilitate Social Navigation CityFlocks bridge time and  as well as space barriers Direct Social  Navigation ‐ Voice‐link to expert residents ‐ Location based user created comments Indirect Social  Navigation ‐ Rating system providing average grade for urban  public places. ‐ Context of people who have been there before CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 37

Applying the Folksonomy Paradigm for a Mobile Service Web 2.0 Mobile Web 2.0 Geo‐tagging Tagging • • • Photos (Flickr!) Videos (YouTube) Weblinks (Delicious) Folksonomy • • • Longitudes / Latitudes Urban places Local services CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 38

CityFlocks Workflow II: 2 simple steps to gather direct navigational help 1 2 Select expert resident  search in the main menu 3 Enter search tag for the  wanted expertise List of expert residents + f d contact details CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 39

Folksonomy: Seeing Other User‘s Tags Helps to Find Related Content 1 2 3 4 CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 40

Folksonomy: Seeing Other User‘s Tags Helps to Find Related Content 1 3 2 4 CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 41

Focus Group Interviews: Imagine you're new in a city and you want to find a good restaurant. What do you do…? Answers Problems I think I would ask the local people. I would probably go to a shop and ask the local  business people. I would do the same what Brooke did, you can only learn from asking around. We do  read a lot but you also have to talk to people...  and use any source of information you  can get, that's the way you learn... I would like to hear everybody's version I usually ask the people where I am staying. That's what I usually do. Although,  sometimes I might have a guidebook where I pick out something. So it's a mixture of  both... it usually depends on what I think about the people. I always ask people who are like me. Sometimes it's pretty hard to actually find local  y p p p y y people in strange places that are not people who have a set of things to sell you  anyway. So you really don't know whether you can trust them because they're  actually about to make a bargain. So I usually ask people who are like me, because I  think, well, if they had a good experience with a restaurant last night, then I am lucky to  have one as well. We sort of help out each other, well, with any kind of problem, we advice people  where to go. Magret, the other day told me where the bus stop is. I didn t know where  where to go Magret the other day told me where the bus stop is I didn't know where the bus to the hospital goes from, so Magret showed it to me. To me it actually doesn't matter what the age is or how they dress like you know it's  just about trying to get some knowledge. And I will actually ask a couple of people to  find out what the best idea is to do in that way, you know. Everybody has different  thoughts and different opinions about things, so I would ask several people in that way. I’ll ask friends who live there. How is it, where I go. Friends first, then websites. I wouldn’t normally go somewhere unknown to me unless I’ve read about it  somewhere saying it’s good, or someone says to me that it’s really good and I should  check it out. I would definitely just ask my friends to start with if I wanted to know about something.  Might depend a little bit on, sort of the type of information that I was looking for.  Maybe 'Is there a good doctor to see at the health service' for example. 'Which doctor  would you see?' ‐ that might be a different type of information to 'Where do I get the  y g yp g bus from?'. I think just about anything I would do to be honest, my first call would be  other people, either my friends or colleagues. We are fairly elderly and we don't go out and ask 20 year olds or 25 year olds.  They might not quite understand what we're talking about. It might be to do  with the age... Our age group determines I think to some extend. On the other hand, if you  have relatives and grand children, that's different. You react different to them. Sometimes I find myself up for adventure, so I don't go and ask people straight  away like would look something up on a website. I really like walking, like walking around and marking stuff for myself. So I would  I really like walking, like walking around and marking stuff for myself. So I would go like, oh there is a doctor here, okay, so I will know for the next time when I  need it or this is a library, just kind of a very exploratory kind of mode. Professional Information Sources Websites and even information centres. Booklets, restaurant guides. Outside Australia, definitely Lonely Planet.  I go to Wikipedia (for destinations outside Australia) (People then discusses the  Wikipedia and show their positive attitudes towards its credibility) I would probably Google it, if there was a language barrier with the local people,  I would just look it up in the internet. Do you feel comfortable ringing people for a short advice even  though you haven't kept in touch for a long time? I woundn't do it. Depends who it is, but that's rude. I am actually okay with doing that with male friends, but I wouldn't do it  with female friends. If this was a close friend, it would be alright. But not with people you  don t normally keep in touch with. don't normally keep in touch with CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 42

Focus Group Interviews Indirect Social Navigation Answers: Once I went with my boyfriend to Cairns, and we  were just travelling and stuff and didn't know  anyone. so we just walked through the town and  find the place with the most people, you know,  that's where the good food is! We would just pick  the busiest place... … or look around for the busiest shop, the place  where the most people go to is probably the best  food. I've tried it a couple of times, it mostly turns  out to be good. I would take a walk around the city and pick up  different places... and eventually come back to  p the place that looked best Problems: How do you bridge time and space barriers? e.g. if you want to go to a good restaurant when not many people are around? e.g. if you want to get a recommendation when you are not in situ? not in situ? Not all physical objects provide interaction history CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 43

Focus Group Outcomes There is a need to Democratise Information about Urban Services: The Wisdom of the Crowds Problem “I always ask people who are like me. Sometimes it's pretty hard to actually find local people in strange  places that are not people who have a set of things to sell you anyway. So you really don't know whether  you can trust them because they're actually about to make a bargain. So I usually ask people who are like  me, because I think, well, if they had a good experience with a restaurant last night, then I am lucky to have  one as well” “ …you can only learn from asking around. We do read a lot but you also have to talk to people...  and use  any source of information you can get, that's the way you learn... I would like to hear everybody's version” “…everybody has different thoughts and different opinions about things, so I would ask several people in  that way that way” Solution We propose a system that leveraging the collective intelligence of urban residents to rate and set comments  on local public places and services CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 44

Location Based Comments Provide Navigational Help „It takes away from you to take a decision when you don't have enough information to make it So it's information to make it. So it s somebody else who's got that information and they can give you a shot…“ CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 45

CityFlocks vs. Professional Information Sources: Democratising Urban Information [about an article in the kuRB magazine*] “...they can write whatever they want, you know… “ h i h h k …whatever makes this place sound good” [about the CityFlocks application]  „It sounds really vague, but it's a feeling that you're connected with somebody. You've connected to somebody. You ve somebody and they've almost talked you in  something or talked you out of this…“ *a city guidebook for the Kelvin Grove Urban Village in Brisbane, Australia CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 46

People only use the direct voice link for friends and if they knew they would not interrupt them [afraid of talking to a stranger] “I wouldn’t just call a random person. I would like to know at least something  about them, before I call them. If it said, for example ‘Anne, 23, medicine  student’ I would consider ringing her up for advice, but what if it’s a professor  or doctor or whatever, you know. That could be awkward. I wouldn’t really  y y know how to talk to them.” [afraid of talking to a stranger] [afraid of talking to a stranger] “Probably no, I prefer to call people that I know. During the day, you know,  people work, I don’t know. If I had the option to send an SMS, I would always go  for the SMS.” CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 47

CityFlocks Provides Information about Urban Places as well as Urban Residents [CityFlocks comment about a park at the KGUV] “I love to spend time here I love to spend time here with my granddaughter…” CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 48

KGUV residents compare their own opinion / rumors with the CityFlocks comments [searching for food facilities] “Oh I wanna see the IGA somebody told me Oh, I wanna see the IGA, somebody told me it’s quite expensive, let me check this out!” CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 49

Direct voice link is not appropriate for unimportant everyday questions [after a phone call with an expert resident] “That was kinda awkward, …I mean when it was just about the bloody coffee I would just go, just about the bloody coffee I would just go I mean it’s 3 bucks...” CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 50 Uses Folksonomy to Organise User Created Weblinks CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 51

Flickr! uses Folksonomy to Organise User Created Photos CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 52

An Active Search Widget facilitates Local Data Input CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 53

Performance Issues due Content Overload The response time of the system decreased increasingly with the amount of  content submitted. CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 54

Current Trends make the Mobile Platform is capable to improve Social Navigation Customised Infotainment Sophisticated p User Interfaces Multimedia Capabilities Rich Voice/Video Telephony High Speed Mobile Internet Access Location Based Services CityFlocks: A Mobile System for Social Navigation in Public Urban Places 55

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