CIC Keynote Reeves Nov06

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Information about CIC Keynote Reeves Nov06
Education

Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Calogera

Source: authorstream.com

What Undergraduates Really Need to Learn: Technology and the Conative Domain :  What Undergraduates Really Need to Learn: Technology and the Conative Domain Overview:  Overview Higher education and learning Conative domain Authenticity and alignment Design-based research agenda Slide4:  When Tiger Woods misses a putt, we still say he putted. Slide5:  When an instructor teaches, but no one learns, has he taught? Slide6:  We don’t know enough about the outcomes of teaching and learning in higher education. It is convenient for everyone involved to pretend that high quality, relevant teaching and learning are occurring. Slide7:  Film Clip from “Declining by Degrees” by John Merrow and Learning Matters “Quality” ratings of universities and colleges by commercial entities have enormous impact in the USA today.:  “Quality” ratings of universities and colleges by commercial entities have enormous impact in the USA today. The criteria used for these rankings are surprisingly dubious. :  The criteria used for these rankings are surprisingly dubious. Slide10:  Film Clip from “Declining by Degrees” by John Merrow and Learning Matters What should we expect our students to learn in higher education?:  What should we expect our students to learn in higher education? Traditional Learning Domains:  Traditional Learning Domains Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Slide13:  Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Cognitive Domain What we say we value What we teach and test Slide14:  Characterization by Value Set Organization Valuing Responding Receiving Affective Domain Slide15:  Non-discursive Communication Skilled Movements Physical Activities Perceptual Skills Basic Fundamental Movement Reflex Movement Psychomotor Domain Slide16:  Unfortunately, we have all too often neglected the conative domain. Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Desire Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Desire Level of effort Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Desire Level of effort Drive Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Desire Level of effort Drive Striving Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Desire Level of effort Drive Striving Mental energy Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Desire Level of effort Drive Striving Mental energy Self-determination Conative Domain:  Conative Domain Will Desire Level of effort Drive Striving Mental energy Self-determination Intention History of the Conative Domain:  History of the Conative Domain Orexis: (Greek) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind Slide26:  cognitive affective conative History of the Conative Domain:  History of the Conative Domain The conative domain as well as the affective were eliminated by the behaviorist movement and “rat psychology.” History of the Conative Domain:  History of the Conative Domain Skinner maintained that humans lack will or intentionality. History of the Conative Domain:  History of the Conative Domain In the 1950’s, Harry Harlow from the University of Wisconsin restored the affective domain to respectability. History of the Conative Domain:  History of the Conative Domain Affection expressed by baby monkeys toward wire, cloth, and real mothers. History of the Conative Domain:  History of the Conative Domain Amazon search yields only one contemporary book about the conative domain. Cognitive – Affective – Conative :  Cognitive – Affective – Conative To know Thinking Thought Epistemology Knowing To feel Feeling Emotion Esthetics Caring To act Willing Volition Ethics Doing Can we restore the conative domain to its proper place in higher education?:  Can we restore the conative domain to its proper place in higher education? Let’s face it. Assessment drives learning.:  Let’s face it. Assessment drives learning. If it hasn’t been assessed, it hasn’t been learned.:  If it hasn’t been assessed, it hasn’t been learned. 21st Century Outcomes:  21st Century Outcomes Accessing and using information Communication skills Demonstrating understanding Applying rules and procedures Being creative Thinking critically Making sound judgments Problem-solving Life-long learning Exhibiting intellectual curiosity We must strive to assess the full range of learning outcomes.:  We must strive to assess the full range of learning outcomes. OK, we need to focus on higher order outcomes, but do our students really want to learn?:  OK, we need to focus on higher order outcomes, but do our students really want to learn? “…today's teens are recasting the image of youth from downbeat and alienated to upbeat and engaged.” :  “…today's teens are recasting the image of youth from downbeat and alienated to upbeat and engaged.” “Today's young people have been raised to aim for the stars at a time when it is more difficult than ever to get into college, find a good job, and afford a house. Their expectations are very high just as the world is becoming more competitive, so there's a huge clash between their expectations and reality.” :  “Today's young people have been raised to aim for the stars at a time when it is more difficult than ever to get into college, find a good job, and afford a house. Their expectations are very high just as the world is becoming more competitive, so there's a huge clash between their expectations and reality.” Corporations assume that technology is enough.:  Corporations assume that technology is enough. Slide42:  Colleges and universities are about to be beset by a new generation of learners whose skills and expectations derive from growing up on the net. National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) :  National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) Slide44:  Focus on undergraduate education 2006: 557 colleges and universities 2005: 529 colleges and universities 2004: 473 colleges and universities 2003: 437 colleges and universities 2002: 367 colleges and universities 2001: 321 colleges and universities 2000: 276 colleges and universities NSSE results:  NSSE results Work expectations for students: 10-15 hrs in class 25-30 hrs studying NSSE results:  NSSE results Work Reality: 20% study 5 hrs per week or less 25% 6-10 hrs 48% 11-30 hrs 7% > 30 hrs NSSE:  NSSE Active, collaborative learning Student faculty Interaction High Academic Challenge Continuous Timely Feedback Slide48:  The best teachers focus on “critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, curiosity, concern for ethical issues” as well as “breadth and depth of specific knowledge” and the “methodologies and standards of evidence used to create that knowledge.” Slide49:  Knowledge is constructed, not received. Slide50:  Mental models change slowly. Slide51:  Teaching is about asking the right questions. Learners must care.:  Learners must care. Higher education pedagogy that works::  Higher education pedagogy that works: problem learning centered on authentic tasks in an information-rich, tool-rich environment collaborative learning with multiple channels for communications learning at pace and time of student‘s choosing learning marked by continuous improvement of a piece of work Higher education pedagogy that fails::  Higher education pedagogy that fails: extensive use of talking heads isolated learners who get limited feedback low-level outcomes measured by exams traditional academic assignments lack of substantive challenge Good News :  Good News Technology can help meet some of the challenges facing higher education. Thank goodness! The effectiveness of technology in any learning environment depends upon the degree that it is aligned with appropriate “pedagogical” dimensions.:  The effectiveness of technology in any learning environment depends upon the degree that it is aligned with appropriate “pedagogical” dimensions. Technologies such as Web are only delivery systems for the interactive learning dimensions we design for them.:  Technologies such as Web are only delivery systems for the interactive learning dimensions we design for them. Problem-Solving Authentic Tasks Coaching Authentic Assessment Technology role in learning environments::  Technology role in learning environments: Technology (media) don’t influence learning any more than a truck that delivers the groceries influences our nutrition. Media are vehicles for instructional methods and interactions that account for learning. Instructional methods are the active agents in e-learning just as an acid compound is the active agent in aspirin regardless of the medium. Alignment is critical!:  Alignment is critical! goals & objectives content instructional design learner tasks instructor roles technological features assessment strategies Nature of Objectives :  Nature of Objectives The best teachers focus on teaching higher order, general skills such as problem solving, creativity, and intellectual curiosity as well as facts and skills. Lower order, discrete Higher order, general Nature of Content :  Nature of Content The best teachers encourage learners to construct multiple interpretations of real world data. One Right Answer Multiple Perspectives Pedagogical Dimensions :  Pedagogical Dimensions The best teachers use innovative alternative pedagogies such as problem based learning or authentic tasks. Direct Instruction Problem-Based Learner Tasks:  Learner Tasks textbook problems abstract context easily solvable one right answer ill-structured problems meaningful context time required multiple solutions Academic Authentic Instructor Roles :  Instructor Roles The best teachers focus less on what they will do and more on what their students will do as learners. Focus of teaching Focus on learning Technology Role :  Technology Role The best teachers use technology to engage students in the active construction of original knowledge representations using real world data. Prepackaged data Real world data Focus of Assessment :  Focus of Assessment The best teachers focus assessment on robust mental models and higher order thinking skills, not just memorized concepts. Discrete Knowledge Mental Models Alignment is essential!:  Alignment is essential! goals/objectives content instructional design technology role assessment learner tasks instructor roles Two Key Points:  Two Key Points Introducing technology alone is never enough. Big gains in productivity come when new technologies are combined with new ways of doing business. Keeping pedagogy ahead of technology is an ongoing struggle.:  Keeping pedagogy ahead of technology is an ongoing struggle. In my experience, this is especially true in higher education!:  In my experience, this is especially true in higher education! Chewing Gum More Effective than Interactive Multimedia CD-ROM:  Chewing Gum More Effective than Interactive Multimedia CD-ROM Dr. Ken Allen at NYU wanted to compare CD-ROM with lectures Wrigley’s wanted to fund chewing gum study Combined study Gum chewers = B- Abstainers = C+ CD-ROM no better Slide72:  Abundant technology has not led to extensive use of computers for “tradition-altering classroom instruction.” The small percentage of computer-using instructors only use it to maintain existing classroom practices. Teachers have legitimate concerns.:  Teachers have legitimate concerns. Is it simple enough for me to learn quickly? It it versatile? Will it motivate students? Is it aligned with skills I’m expected to teach. Is it reliable? It it breaks, who will help? Will it weaken my classroom authority? Slide74:  “Lecturing still absorbs more than half to two thirds of various departments’ teaching practices… These traditional forms of teaching seem to have been relatively untouched by the enormous investment in technologies.” Slide77:  We already know that learning “from” computers works as well as face-to-face instruction. Premier Educational Research Journal in the USA:  Premier Educational Research Journal in the USA Bernard et al. 2004 - “How Does Distance Education Compare to Classroom Instruction?”:  Bernard et al. 2004 - “How Does Distance Education Compare to Classroom Instruction?” a very small but positive mean effect size for interactive distance education over traditional classroom instruction on student achievement small negative effect for retention rate Tallent-Runnels et al. 2006 - “Teaching Courses Online: A Review of the Research:  Tallent-Runnels et al. 2006 - “Teaching Courses Online: A Review of the Research Major conclusion: “… overwhelming evidence has shown that learning in an online environment can be as effective as that in traditional classrooms.” Is “just as good” good enough?:  Is “just as good” good enough? Authentic Learning Team:  Authentic Learning Team Reeves, Herrington, Oliver Example: Research methods:  Example: Research methods Course: Research preparation: Research methods Max Angus & Jan Gray, School of Education, Edith Cowan University Example: Literature:  Example: Literature Course: North American Fiction and Film John Fitzsimmons, Faculty of Arts Health and Sciences, Central Queensland University Example: Business writing:  Course: Writing in organizations Marsha Durham & Russ Pennell, University of Western Sydney Example: Business writing What is stopping instructors from breaking away from traditional teaching?:  What is stopping instructors from breaking away from traditional teaching? Slide87:  The most “shocking” discovery is the “non-aggression pact” between professors and students. Why should I put time into teaching when I am rewarded for research?:  Why should I put time into teaching when I am rewarded for research? We must eliminate the dichotomy between research and teaching!:  We must eliminate the dichotomy between research and teaching! The Scholarship of Teaching:  The Scholarship of Teaching Lee Shulman, President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, advocates a “design research” agenda for faculty in all disciplines. http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/ In education, the traditional research methodology is expressed as follows: :  In education, the traditional research methodology is expressed as follows: Lit. Review Design research methodology can be expressed as follows: :  Design research methodology can be expressed as follows: ID of problems with practitioners Development of prototype solutions Derivation of design principles Design Research Strategies::  Design Research Strategies: Define a pedagogical outcome and create learning environments that address it. Emphasize content and pedagogy rather than technology. Give special attention to supporting human interactions. Modify learning environments until outcome is reached. Slide94:  “The status of research deemed educational would have to be judged, first in terms of its disciplined quality and secondly in terms of its impact. Poor discipline is no discipline. And excellent research without impact is not educational.” - Charles W. Desforges (2000) Thank You!:  Thank You! Professor Tom Reeves The University of Georgia Instructional Technology 604 Aderhold Hall Athens, GA 30602-7144 USA treeves@uga.edu http://it.coe.uga.edu/ http://www.evaluateitnow.com

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