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Cht 4

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Information about Cht 4
Spiritual-Inspirational

Published on January 10, 2009

Author: aSGuest10010

Source: authorstream.com

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Chapter 4Perception, Attribution, and the Management of Diversity : Chapter 4Perception, Attribution, and the Management of Diversity Perception : Perception What? The process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret the input from their senses to give meaning and order to the world around them Figure 4.1 Components of Perception : Figure 4.1 Components of Perception Perceiver Target Situation or context in which perception takes place Components of Perception : Components of Perception Perceiver Target Situation The Accuracy of Perceptions : The Accuracy of Perceptions Implications: Perceptions are critical for managerial functions Motivating subordinates Treating subordinates fairly and equitably Making ethical decisions The Accuracy of Perceptions : The Accuracy of Perceptions Not always accurate Accuracy can be improved by understanding what perceptions are how they are formed what influences them Figure 4.2 Characteristics of the Perceiver That Affect Perception : Insert Figure 4.2 here Figure 4.2 Characteristics of the Perceiver That Affect Perception Table 4.1 Factors That Influence Perception : Table 4.1 Factors That Influence Perception Schemas : Schemas What? Responsible for the organization and interpretation of information about targets of perception Based on past experiences and knowledge Resistant to change Schemas : Schemas Types: Functional Adapt to complex environment Dysfunctional Inaccurate perceptions Ex. Stereotypes Motivational State and Mood : Motivational State and Mood Motivational State: The needs, values, and desires of a perceiver at the time of perception. Mood: How a perceiver feels at the time of perception. Table 4.1 Factors That Influence Perception : Table 4.1 Factors That Influence Perception Ambiguity : A lack of clearness or definiteness As the ambiguity of a target increases, it becomes increasingly difficult for a perceiver to form an accurate perception Ambiguity Social Status : What? A person’s real or perceived position in society or in an organization. Targets with relatively high status are perceived to be smarter, more credible, more knowledgeable, and more responsible for their actions than lower-status targets. Social Status Impression Management : An attempt to control the perceptions or impressions of others Impression Management Table 4.2 Impression Management Tactics : Table 4.2 Impression Management Tactics Appreciating or Flattering Others The target compliments the per- ceiver. This tactic works best when flattery is not extreme and when it involves a dimension important to the perceiver. A coworker compliments a manager on his excellent handling of a troublesome employee. Table 4.1 Factors That Influence Perception : Table 4.1 Factors That Influence Perception Salience : Extent to which a target of perception stands out in a group of people or things Causes of salience Salience Being novel Being inconsistent Being figural Table 4.3 Causes of Salience : Table 4.3 Causes of Salience Table 4.4 Biases and Problems in Perception : Table 4.4 Biases and Problems in Perception Primacy Effects The initial pieces of information that a perceiver has about a target have an inordinately large effect on the perceiver’s perception and evaluation of the target. Interviewers decide in the first few minutes of an interview whether or not a job candidate is a good prospect. Contrast Effect The perceiver’s perceptions of others influence the perceiver’s perception of a target. A manager’s perception of an average subordinate is likely to be lower if that subordinate is in a group with very high performers rather than in a group with very low performers. Halo Effect The perceiver’s general impression of a target influences his or her perception of the target on specific dimensions. A subordinate who has made a good overall impression on a supervisor is rated as performing high-quality work and always meeting deadlines regardless of work that is full of mistakes and late. Table 4.4 Biases and Problems in Perception : Table 4.4 Biases and Problems in Perception Similar-to- me Effect People perceive others who are similar to themselves more positively than they perceive those who are dissimilar. Supervisors rate subordinates who are similar to them more positively than they deserve. Harshness, Leniency, Average Tendency Some perceivers tend to be overly harsh in their perceptions, some overly lenient. Others view most targets as being about average. When rating subordinates’ performances, some supervisors give almost everyone a poor rating, some give almost everyone a good rating, and others rate almost everyone as being about average. Knowledge of Predictor Knowing how a target stands on a predictor of performance influences perceptions of the target. A professor perceives a student more positively than she deserves because the professor knows the student had a high score on the SAT. Perception, Attribution, Management of Diversity : Perception, Attribution, Management of Diversity Attribution Theory : Attribution Theory Describes how people explain the causes of behavior Focuses on why people behave the way they do Attributions can be made about the self or another person Figure 4.3 Types of Attributions : Insert Figure 4.3 here Figure 4.3 Types of Attributions Attributional Biases : Attributional Biases Fundamental attribution error Internal causes to behavior Actor-observer effect Internal to others and external to self Self-serving attribution Credit for success Perception, Attribution, Management of Diversity : Perception, Attribution, Management of Diversity Objectives of Diversity Programs : Objectives of Diversity Programs Making explicit and breaking down organizational member’ stereotypes Result in inaccurate perceptions and attributions Making members aware of different kinds of backgrounds, experiences, and values Objectives of Diversity Programs : Objectives of Diversity Programs Showing members how to deal effectively with diversity-related conflicts and tensions Generally improving members’ understanding of each other Diversity Training : Diversity Training Role-playing Self-awareness activities Awareness activities Education Mentoring Formal Informal Sexual Harassment : Sexual Harassment Quid Pro Quo Hostile Work Environment Examples of Hostile Work Environment Sexual harassment : Examples of Hostile Work Environment Sexual harassment Pornographic pictures Sexual jokes Lewd comments Sexually-oriented comments Displays of sexually-oriented objects Steps to Combat Sexual Harassment : Steps to Combat Sexual Harassment Develop a sexual harassment policy Clearly communicate the organization’s sexual harassment policy Steps to Combat Sexual Harassment : Steps to Combat Sexual Harassment Investigate charges of sexual harassment Take corrective action Provide sexual harassment training and education

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