Chp 3 Immigrant Communities

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Information about Chp 3 Immigrant Communities

Published on July 5, 2007

Author: donaldleo

Source: slideshare.net

Chp 3 Immigrants – What part did they play in Singapore’s development?

Their lives and contributions…

Who were the immigrants? Europeans – British, Portuguese, Dutch Arabia – Some could trace origins to Yamen India and Ceylon – Tamils, Punjabis, Bengalis, Gujeratis and Parsees. Sinhalese from Ceylon. Malay Archipelago – Javanese, Boyanese and Bugis Melaka and Penang – Straits Chinese China – Hokkiens, Cantonese, Teochews, Hainanese, Hakkas. Mostly from Southern China.

Europeans – British, Portuguese, Dutch

Arabia – Some could trace origins to Yamen

India and Ceylon – Tamils, Punjabis, Bengalis, Gujeratis and Parsees. Sinhalese from Ceylon.

Malay Archipelago – Javanese, Boyanese and Bugis

Melaka and Penang – Straits Chinese

China – Hokkiens, Cantonese, Teochews, Hainanese, Hakkas. Mostly from Southern China.

An old postcard of Singapore

Why did they come to Singapore? Push Factors: unfavourable conditions in their homeland e.g. war, natural disasters Pull Factors: favourable conditions that attract people to migrate e.g. jobs were abundant, better opportunities, peace, etc. Change and Continuity: Were the reasons that attracted the early immigrants to migrate to Singapore similar to the ones that attract foreigners to come to Singapore now?

Push Factors: unfavourable conditions in their homeland e.g. war, natural disasters

Pull Factors: favourable conditions that attract people to migrate e.g. jobs were abundant, better opportunities, peace, etc.

Change and Continuity:

Were the reasons that attracted the early immigrants to migrate to Singapore similar to the ones that attract foreigners to come to Singapore now?

Singapore at its early days

Characteristics of early immigrants Mostly men Did not intend to stay for long – sojourners Some decided to stay Some married locals, others sent their families over Malays were the majority till the mid-19 th century when the Chinese took over Different ethnic groups were segregated – divide and rule Each group had a kapitan to take charge

Mostly men

Did not intend to stay for long – sojourners

Some decided to stay

Some married locals, others sent their families over

Malays were the majority till the mid-19 th century when the Chinese took over

Different ethnic groups were segregated – divide and rule

Each group had a kapitan to take charge

Japanese in Singapore – Karayuki-san

Malay Street

Singapore Town Plan 1822

Where did they reside? Chinese – Chinatown (Kereta Ayer) and different areas for different dialect groups Indians- Chulia Kampong (Church Street) and later Serangoon Road Europeans – North Bridge Road Malays – Kampong Glam Arabs – Arab Street Bugis – Bugis Campong Commercial Square (Raffles Square today) – centre of commerce for all traders

Chinese – Chinatown (Kereta Ayer) and different areas for different dialect groups

Indians- Chulia Kampong (Church Street) and later Serangoon Road

Europeans – North Bridge Road

Malays – Kampong Glam

Arabs – Arab Street

Bugis – Bugis Campong

Commercial Square (Raffles Square today) – centre of commerce for all traders

How did the immigrants contribute to Singapore as a trading centre? Entrepot trade: 1. importing and exporting goods; 2. providing capital; 3. serving as middlemen and 4. providing goods and services for daily living Providing support services: 1. construction sites; 2. dockyards; 3. plantations; 4. factories and 5. provision of daily necessities

Entrepot trade: 1. importing and exporting goods; 2. providing capital; 3. serving as middlemen and 4. providing goods and services for daily living

Providing support services: 1. construction sites; 2. dockyards; 3. plantations; 4. factories and 5. provision of daily necessities

Singapore – A free port This meant that traders and ships from all nations could trade freely with one another and they did not have to pay custom duties or taxes on the goods they carried to and from the port. Entrepot trade is also known as re-exportation, which is when a member of a customs union charges lower tariffs to external nations to win trade, and then re-exports the same product within the customs union, but tariff-free. Traders often engaged Chinese middlemen to buy and sell goods. Other services were also provided for traders…

This meant that traders and ships from all nations could trade freely with one another and they did not have to pay custom duties or taxes on the goods they carried to and from the port.

Entrepot trade is also known as re-exportation, which is when a member of a customs union charges lower tariffs to external nations to win trade, and then re-exports the same product within the customs union, but tariff-free.

Traders often engaged Chinese middlemen to buy and sell goods.

Other services were also provided for traders…

Services provided by different ethnic groups Chinese – unskilled labourers, coolies working at docks and construction sites Indians – banking and transportation, construction works by convicts Malays – providing basic necessities like firewood and foodstuff, shipbuilders etc. Others – services to all these new immigrants, e.g. barbers, tailors, entertainers, plantation workers, rickshaw riders, dhobi men, etc.

Chinese – unskilled labourers, coolies working at docks and construction sites

Indians – banking and transportation, construction works by convicts

Malays – providing basic necessities like firewood and foodstuff, shipbuilders etc.

Others – services to all these new immigrants, e.g. barbers, tailors, entertainers, plantation workers, rickshaw riders, dhobi men, etc.

 

What Social impact did the immigrants have on Singapore? Acts of philanthropy by rich businessmen e.g. Tan Tock Seng > building hospital, Govindasamy Pillay > building of Hindu temples Building of schools by businessmen and Christian missionaries e.g. St Margaret’s Sch aimed at saving girls slavery Crimes committed by the immigrants e.g. slave trade, abuse of coolies, secret societies etc. Social vices e.g. prostitution, gambling, opium smoking

Acts of philanthropy by rich businessmen e.g. Tan Tock Seng > building hospital, Govindasamy Pillay > building of Hindu temples

Building of schools by businessmen and Christian missionaries e.g. St Margaret’s Sch aimed at saving girls slavery

Crimes committed by the immigrants e.g. slave trade, abuse of coolies, secret societies etc.

Social vices e.g. prostitution, gambling, opium smoking

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