Published on March 11, 2014
Answering Guest Questions More Effectively With The Help of Desk.com John Scrugham Director of Operations Contact Info firstname.lastname@example.org 503.789.0078
Table of Contents • Executive Summary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 • The Problem- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -5 • The Solution- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -10 • Features of Desk.com- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -14 • Costs and Benefits- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 • Concerns- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -22 • Implementation- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 • Summary- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 • References- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -27 • Appendices- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29
Executive Summary • Orbridge fails the RATER quality framework for answering guest questions because of slow answer time and getting the wrong answer. • Agent answering time is highly variable, contributing to longer answer time. Orbridge’s many sources lead agents to the wrong answers. • Slow answer time and getting the wrong answer negatively impact our bottom-line by $3,600 and $37,713 per month respectively. The problem with answering guest questions lies in slow answer time and getting the wrong answer. • The software requirements include a knowledgebase and ticket tracking software; the software must be scalable, hosted in the cloud, and have a clean interface. • Desk.com is highly ranked as a knowledge base and ticket tracking software and is the only product that satisfies our software requirements. • The Desk.com’s knowledgebase is a good fit for Orbridge because of the public/private articles, article layout, knowledge management, and searchable knowledgebase. • The Desk.com ticket tracking is a good fit for Orbridge because of the email warning, business rules, voice over IP, and case options. The solution is to implement Desk.com. • The costs to run Desk.com have low upfront investment and flexible future pricing, ideal for a startup. • The first benefit is that Desk.com decreases time spent answering questions by over 50%, bottom-line savings of $1,272. • The second benefit is that answering guest questions correctly decreases the cost of poor service, bottom-line savings of $15,086/month. • The last benefit is that improved guest answering efficiency eliminates the necessity to hire a third agent, bottom- line savings of $4,166/ month. The costs to implement are small compared to the benefits.
5 Orbridge struggles with answering guest questions Future Traveler: Mary Hamilton Orbridge Agent: Lauren MeyerCase Study Question Scenario: Mary Hamilton traveled with us last year on the Galapagos Cruise (December 2011). She traveled with us again on the April 7, 2012 Alaska’s Inside Passage Cruise. When packing for the cruise, she decided that she wanted to bring her telephoto camera lenses with her on the trip to take shots of the bears, eagles, and whales. She forgot to bring the lenses to the Galapagos and she regretted it. To pack the lenses, she needs to bring a bigger suitcase (34 inches tall). Mary’s Question: Will my 34 inch suitcase fit under the bed on the cruise ship? Agent Interaction: Mary calls Lauren at Orbridge to find out how much room is under the beds on the ship. Lauren looks through 6 sources of information to find the answer. After 12 minutes, she finds the answer. Lauren tells Mary that there are 30 inches under the mattress. Issue: It takes Lauren 12 minutes to get back to Mary. That is wasted time on both ends. Additionally, Lauren tells Mary the wrong answer; the beds have 35 inches underneath. More than just Mary 17% of guest are getting all or some of their questions wrongly answered1. Ex: Lauren tells Mary 34 inches. 15% of guests complain about getting wrong answers from agents. (Tantawy, et al, 2000) shows that only 22% of guests complain even if they had trouble about it. 10% of guests actively express concern with how long we take to answer questions2. Ex: Mary doesn’t get an answer until after 12 minutes on the phone 2Expressing concern comes from email and phone conversations. Examples include phrases such as “why can’t you find this” “is there another place that I can find this info”.
6 Using the RATER quality framework we can understand why Orbridge struggles with answering guest questions The RATER model was developed by quality gurus in the late 1970s as a framework for identifying where to improve and understand quality in operations, specifically service businesses. Recently, Nyeck, et al, 2002 confirmed that by identifying and addressing these 5 components or RATER, a business can become more profitable. 1. Reliability a) Definition: Perform promised service dependably and accurately. b) Applies to Orbridge: We promise to answer guest questions quickly (timeliness) and correctly (accuracy). We cannot deliver on our promise because of our unreliable information sources and long answering times. 2. Responsiveness a) Definition: Willingness to help customers promptly. b) Applies to Orbridge: While our agents are willing to act promptly, our current systems at Orbridge inhibit them to do so. 3. Assurance a) Definition: Ability to convey trust and confidence. b) Applies to Orbridge: Orbridge is a startup company, so instilling trust in a customer is very difficult. We cannot be trusted if we answer questions incorrectly. 4. Empathy a) Definition: Ability to be approachable. b) Applies to Orbridge: Our agents are approachable in-person, but guests contact them through a medium (email, phone, instant message, etc). The medium in which the two sides communicate through determines the level of empathy that can be expressed. Orbridge’s current medium (phone and scattered sources) limits the agents ability to be approachable. 5. Tangibles a) Definition: The physical representations or images of your service—employees, equipment, communication material, and facility. b) Applies to Orbridge: The tour business sells an experience, which makes it even harder to ensure customer confidence the in brand/company. Our touch points of conveying trust before the trip occur through our direct mailings (which we do a good job) and communicating with guests. Since we do not communicate well with guest when they answer questions, our customer’s trust and confidence in us is greatly hurt Summary: We do not satisfy the 5 components of RATER, so our profits are negatively affected as I will demonstrate later in this report. There are two common elements of answering questions that have negatively affected our ability to satisfy the RATER: (1) slow answer time and (2) wrong answers. These negatively affect our service in answering guest questions.
7 Agent answering time is highly variable, contributing to longer answer time, and Orbridge’s many sources lead agents to the wrong answers Slow Answer Time Analysis: Call time is statistically out of control meaning that we have significant variability in our ability to answer questions in less than 5 minutes. This may be a result of a lack of processes (and facilitating software) in place to ensure constant answering time. Additionally, on average, 29.6% of our calls take longer than 5 minutes (5 minutes is used as an upper limit of acceptability defined by Orbridge’s CEO). This is a very high proportion. Spikes in proportions, such as sample 12, are most likely a result of difficult questions that we cannot find answers to. Additionally, sharp drops in time to answer questions (like sample 6 and 14) may be the result of questions that are easy to answer. Customer impact: Customers perceive long waits as unprofessional. Agents seem not responsiveness when the wait is long. Bottom Line Impact: High variability in answering time, as a result of a lack of supportive processes, contribute to a longer overall time to answer questions. This wastes agent time, which is money that we are paying them. List of sources that agents reference: 1. Reservations Excel File: Individual trip information is in each of the excel files. Lauren tries to keep the file updated weekly. 2. Orbridge Website: We have updated the site twice in 16 months. Agents still use the site for information, although it primarily serves as a quick overview of the trips for guests. 3. Supplier’s Websites: Supplier publish material for clients to access. For example, InnerSeas Discoveries has boat information for their vendors. 4. Orbridge Direct Mailings: Agents often reference dated mailings Although the facts in the material are reliable at the time of publication, they are often outdated by the time agents reference them. 5. Guest Documents: We send trip information regarding useful trip hints such as temperature, a packing list, and ship specifications to the future trip-goers. 6. Big Knowledge Books: Lauren, the Orbridge Director of Operations, has compiled binders of information about each trip. These binders contain on average 200 pages of trip information printed off from many sources. Although it is not up-to-date, it is the most comprehensive knowledge in the office. Getting the wrong answer Average p 0.296 UCL 0.361 LCL 0.231 Stdev 0.065 Analysis: Agents look through 6 sources to answer guest questions. This leads answering 17% of guest incorrectly (see previous page). The many sources make it hard for agents to maintain and use quality information. Customer impact: Customers act on the information we give them, so when it’s wrong, they do things that most likely won’t benefit them such as not bringing their telephoto lenses with them. If we apply “Zero Defects,” the concept popularized by quality guru Philip Crosby (Creech, 1994), to this problem area, we can understand the impact. Namely, if we answer just one question wrong, we are straying from customer expectations. Bottom Line Impact: This hurts our profit because every time we answer a question wrong, we are incurring a cost. This costs—or the Price of Nonconformance—include inspection time, rework, wasted material and labor, lost revenue and the cost of customer dissatisfaction.
8 Slow answer time and getting the wrong answer negatively impact our bottom-line by $3600 and $37,713 per month respectively Slow Answer Time Bottom Line Impact: Guest service agents spend 30% of their day answering questions. If we can cut time answering questions, we can put their time—and add value—in other areas that directly drive revenue such as taking reservations. The total bottom line impact for guest agents spending 30% of their time answer questions is: $3,600/month Getting the wrong answer Bottom Line Impact: The tree diagram on the left represents the possible scenarios when a guest question is not resolved. The bottom line impact is a function of the likelihood that an event happens (such as a guest further inquiry at 17% * 10% ) and the monetary value associated with that event ($4.15 is time for an agent to answer a further guest inquiry). The total bottom line impact of 17% of questions not being resolved is: $37,713 / month % of Time Hours of Day Mailings 20% 1.6 To guest (10%) Marketing (10%) Trip Preparation 50% 4 Reservations (30%) Guest communication (20%) Answering Questions ( ̴ 30/day) 30% 2.4 Repetitive* (20%) Hard** (10%) Guest Agent’s Daily Work Breakdown *A repetitive question is a question that guests often ask (a daily question) such as what flights go in to the port of call or when they can board the ship. **A hard question is one that takes considerable time to find an answer to such as “is there a vegan option on this trip”
9 The Solution
10 The software requirements include a knowledgebase and ticket tracking software; the software must be scalable,hosted in the cloud, and have a clean interfaceSolutionRequirements 2. Knowledge base SoftwareSpecifications 3. Scalable: The software needs to be scalable because Orbridge currently only needs two agents, but will need many more within a year. Orbridge has tripled the volume of trips this season and will need more agents to work with the software. 4. Cloud computing (Saas): Orbridge completely operates on the cloud: CRM with 37Signals, calendar and email with Google Business Apps, Alumni Web portal for marketing, data storage with Dropbox. One of Orbridge’s strategies is to have all systems online so that they can “talk” to each other. New software must be online. 5. Clean Interface: A clean interface will allow training to be easier (since most training at Orbridge is self- teaching) and a higher adoption rate (Orbridge needs 100% adoption for the 2 agents). 1. Ticket Tracking: software that organizations use to monitor questions and issues that customers have. Slow Answer Time Getting the Wrong Answer Agents can keep track of all the cases and allocate how they are going to answer them. This decreases variability because there is a process in place to answer guest questions Pass the questions on to specialist agents. By having a process in which to allocate the knowledge of the organizations, we limit the sources of information to the specialists. 2. Knowledgebase: a central place that people in an organization can store information for both the employees to access and for guest to browse. Slow Answer Time Getting the Wrong Answer Able to access the whole network of information in one place This decreases variability because guests know where to get the answer. Collectively update the info online. All agents can access the updated info There is one source in which people can access information.
11 The helpdesk options are ranked on how well the software meets Orbridge’s software requirements Product Cost Integration and Scalability Cloud Capabilities Interface Design Knowledgebase Ticket Tracking Salesforce Desk.com $49/month 10 Add and drop users with a click. Add users for a high demand time on an hourly basis. Easy to add web portal. 9 Salesforce is a premier company for SaaS software. Desk.com has 99.99% up-time. We can rely on this cloud service. 10 Assislty—the original software company and product that Salesforce purchased—was a leader in clean interface design. 9 Easy to navigate on the user’s side. Customizable so that Orbridge can have additional, private, knowledgebase information within the system 9 Business rules allow us to funnel different inquiry keywords to separate agents. Multichannel support— Facebook, twitter, email, VoIP. Shortcuts for canned/custom responses Zendesk $24/month 9 Add and drop agents. Takes some tech knowledge to setup 10 Zendesk was and is a pioneer in SaaS for helpdesk software. Bugs are quickly fixed. 7 A common complaint (Quora)—and one that I found to be true—was that the interface is cluttered. 6 The knowledgebase is an extra feature to this product, not a core part. 9 Multichannel support. Analytics for customer support. Ticket sharing. VoIP is well-tested. HelpSpot $49/User/Ye ar + licensing ($239/user) 7 Has the components of scaling—add and drop agents—yet steep learning curve 8 Semi-reliable servers. 4 Interface has not had a major overhaul since 2004. Backwards navigation. 7 User and agent end of knowledgebase is solid, more geared towards software companies. The ability to brand is seriously lacking 7 No multi-channel support. Difficulty in sharing cases with other agents. Automation rules are good. Freshdesk $9 per agent/month 5 Need tech support to set up. Scaling involves switching plans. Upon questioning, unclear wear data is stored and moved to. 8 Dedicated team to ensure good uptime. 9 Simple overviews help agents understand daily needs. Works like Gmail. Navigation makes sense 8 Branded and clean knowledgebase from both user and agent end. Forum allows community voting. Email to knowledgebase for updating. 7 Prioritize customers. Not good ability to share tickets with other agents. Automated responses confusing. Kayako Fusion $49/user/mo nth +licensing (quoted at $2300 for us) 6 Pricing allows for scaling. The systems do not support good scaling. 6 Kayoko is new to the cloud. They focus on enterprise software. 7 Has taken great steps in past 2 years. Still behind market leaders. 7 Excellent branding capabilities. Agent knowledgebase is clunky. 8 Built for software support. Many good features, yet may be beyond our scope. * Collected ratings from browsing website and demoing all products during a one-month trial period.
12 Desk.com is highly ranked as a knowledge base and ticket tracking software and is the only product that satisfies our software requirements. Product Cost Integration and Scalability Cloud Capabilities Interface Design Knowledgebase Ticket Tracking Salesforce Desk.com $49/month 10 Add and drop users with a click. Add users for a high demand time on an hourly basis. Easy to add web portal. 9 Salesforce is a premier company for SaaS software. Desk.com has 99.99% up-time. We can rely on this cloud service. 10 Assislty—the original software company and product that Salesforce purchased—was a leader in clean interface design. 9 Easy to navigate on the user’s side. Customizable so that Orbridge can have additional, private, knowledgebase information within the system 9 Business rules allow us to funnel different inquiry keywords to separate agents. Multichannel support—Facebook, twitter, email, VoIP. Shortcuts for canned/custom responses Desk.com received the highest scores, and is my suggestion for the software of choice, for the following reasons: Costs: My cost limitations were $10-200/ user/ month, since the costs of poor service and wasted time are around $30,000/ month. Most products that I researched were in this range, so this was not a distinguishing factor of Desk.com. Integration and Scalability: Desk.com had the most flexible scaling option. We can add as many agents as we want as we grow. What particularly attracted me to the Desk.com was that we can add agents on an hourly basis. On high volume days, it will be beneficial to put the Director of Operations on the guest service team to answer questions (in the weeks leading up to our summer tour season). Cloud Capabilities: Since the business needs of Orbridge demand a cloud service, I only looked at products that could be hosted online. My goal was to find a product with solid up-time and little bugs—that’s why we chose Dropbox and 37Signals over the competitors. Desk.com had both a solid track record and is backed by one of the most respectable3 cloud service companies: Salesforce.com. Interface Design: I demoed all the software products found in the chart on the previous page. While screen shots show that Desk.com, Freshdesk, and even Zendesk have flashy and pleasing interfaces, Desk.com was the most intuitive and easy to use. Preliminary tests showed that agents felt more comfortable using Desk.com interface, namely because it reflects Gmail’s interface (the email client that we current use). Knowledgebase: See Page 14. Ticket Tracking: See Page 14. 3 The CruncBase profile shows that Salesforce is a consistent leader in the cloud-based service market. It has gained considerable traction after the 2006 IPO. See: http://www.crunchbase.com/company/salesforce
The Features of Desk.com That are Beneficial Specifically for Orbridge
14 The Desk.com’s knowledgebase is a good fit for Orbridge because of the public/private articles, article layout, knowledge management, and searchable knowledgebase Feature Description How It Helps Public/ private articles Allows us to store additional information about a topic in the same article without showing the guests. This is beneficial because it allows us to keep all information in once place (on Desk.com and specifically in one article) so that we have one place to update info, ensuring quality and up-to- date information Article Layout Organized in a clean fashion and ability to easily brand. The guest will see the portal, easily be able to access information, and believe that this is part of the Orbridge website. This boosts our reputation. Knowledge management Ability to assign agents rights to updating different articles. Administrator has universal editing privileges and can track changes to knowledgebase. With agents specializing in different regions of the world, it’s useful to have certain agents able to update certain articles. With one person overseeing the content, we can ensure quality. Searchable knowledgebase Users can search individual words within the knowledgebase. Additionally, we can assign keywords to articles for organization. Allows agents to quickly find information to reduce time. We can group similar trips together (and similar things on trips such as transportation and climate info) with the same keywords. *See Appendix A for images of the software
15 The Desk.com ticket tracking is a good fit for Orbridge because of the email warning, business rules, voice over IP, and case options Feature Description How It Helps Email Warning When users email Orbridge with a question, Desk.com searches and matches keywords and phrases within the body of the guest’s email that are present in the knowledgebase. Desk.com makes suggestion on where to look before user sends the email. This feature is completely unique to Desk.com This feature reduces the volume of emails coming in because it offers one last chance for guest’s to answer their own question. Business Rules Administrators can set automated filtering options for emails coming in based on title of email, words in email, and even guest name. We can funnel different trip inquiries to certain agents who specialize in certain areas of the world. Since we have over 30 trips to know about, it’s important to split of the knowledge and the responses. Voice Over IP VoIP is a way to talk to people on the phone through the internet. Desk.com has the ability to integrate phone conversations in to the ticket tracking side of the software. Desk.com is on the forefront of VoIP within ticket tracking. Orbridge is planning to switch to VoIP from landline phones within 6 months. Desk.com can integrate with that system so that all guest inquiries can be tracked in Desk.com. This gives Orbridge in-depth knowledge about all guest communication in regard to questions and answers. Case Options Desk.com gives agents the power to modify case options such as the status of the ticket (resolved, open), and the priority of the message (10 for important guests and 1 for unimportant) We are able to keep track of who we are answering and how important they are. This ensures that we are answering the questions that are driving the most value in the organization. As a startup, we need to allocate our sources very wisely. Case options gives us the power to do so. *See Appendix A for images of the software
Costs and Benefits
17 The costs to run Desk.com have low upfront investment and flexible future pricing, ideal for a startup Item Description Cost Migration Pulling all the information from the multiple sources. One week for one employee. $1400. Employee earns $25 per hour Training 2 agents comfortable with software. All 7 employees to understand product. $3000. Cost of my time and all employees time for 20 hours. Desk.com Knowledge base, ticket tracking, customer management $49 per agent/month Initial Equity Investment: $4400 2 Agents: $98/month
18 The first benefit decreased time spent answering questions by over 50%, bottom-line savings of $1,272 % of Time Hours of Day Mailings 20% 1.6 To guest (10%) Marketing (10%) Trip Preparation 50% 4 Reservations (30%) Guest communication (20%) Answering Questions ( ̴ 30/day) 30% 2.4 Repetitive (20%) Hard (10%) Hard Questions (10%) Repetitive Questions (20%) Time Answering All Questions Now 0 hr 48 min(s) 1 hr 36 min(s) 2 hr 24 min(s) 40% decrease in question volume4 0 hr 00 min(s) 0 hr 38 min(s) 0 hr 38 min(s) 60% increase in efficiency 5 0 hr 28 min(s) 0 hr 34 min(s) 1 hr 03 min(s) With Desk.com 0 hr 19 min(s) 0 hr 23 min(s) 0 hr 42 min(s) 4 40% is what Matthew Chabrier of Desk.com quoted as the low end in our email encounter. 5 60% is a combination of 3 sources. Tauck tours claims 85% increase in efficiency and Matthew quotes 100%. Research (Reinartz, 2004) in this area has shown 15% increase in effiency. Bottom-line Savings $1,272/month Time Saved 1hr 41min(s) Agent Rate 25.00$
19 The second benefit is that answering guest questions correctly decreases the cost of poor service, bottom-line savings of $15,086/month Current cost of poor service, with 17% of questions not being resolved is: $37,713 / month With a knowledgebase, I expect that we can reduce the amount of wrong answers by 40%, cutting it to 10.2% of total questions still being answered incorrectly. $22,627 / month Down from 17% Bottom-line Savings $15,086/month
20 The last benefit is that improved guest answering efficiency eliminates the necessity to hire a third agent, bottom-line savings of $4,166/ month CEO and Director of Operations helped the agents answer questions. Do not want repeat. We need to hire 3rd agent to handle increased question volume with current system Peak expected question volume remains below total maximum volume with 2 agents using Desk.com. We do not have to hire a 3rd agent for at least another year. Monthly trip volume continues to increase year over year. We project trip volume to continue to increase as we have added over 30 departure dates for next season. As the number of people who travel with us increases, so will the number of questions that they will ask. 5-12% of guests who travel with us for a given month with ask a question on a given day during that month (guests often ask multiple questions throughout the month). Current System With Desk.com Questions answered per hour 13 42.9 Max hours 4 4 Max volume 50.0 171.4 Num. Agents 2 2 Total Max Volume 100.0 342.9 Bottom-line Savings: We delay the cost of an additional agent at $4,166/month
22 Concerns include updating, software issues, and proven software, yet all have solutions Concern: Ensuring updated and quality information in the knowledgebase. Solution: Currently, all employees spend time updating their own information sources—trip binders, reservations excel, and guest trip documents. We need to change the process of updating so that everyone will use the knowledgebase as a central point to update. To ensure quality information, we will implement fact-checking procedures where initial information that goes in to the knowledgebase is highlighted (and not published) until another agent comes in and checks it off as good. Desk.com allows for this functionality with an administrator who oversees changes. Concern: Software issues with crashes and bugs. Solution: All software crashes and has bugs; it’s the degree in which this happens that separates good software from the bad. Desk.com has a solid track record of no crashes and is backed by a reliable, and large, company called Salesforce.com (http://www.desk.com/trust). When software does crash, we will use our previous system of answering phone calls and manually emailing customers until the software is back up. An example is when power goes out at a hotel and the front desk agents need to manually check in guests. They use their old systems—paper slips and credit card imprinters—to check guests in. Concern: Desk.com doesn’t have comparable clients to Orbridge; it’s not proven in our segment. Solution: Helpdesk software, what Desk.com is, is common across top-performing companies. Hewlett-Packard and DHL use Kayako Fusion, Yelp and DirectTV use Desk.com, Dropbox and OpenTable use Zendesk.com, and United Way and jiffy lube use Helpspot. Additionally, Tauck Tours, the top performer in our competitive set, uses a knowledgebase software and a separate ticket- tracking software. Tauck found that they reduced question volume by 60% and improved efficiency by 40%. With Desk.com, we can adopt a similar—yet more advanced—system to Tauck’s. Since Orbridge has traditionally been on the forefront of technology, we should push ourselves past our competitors in technology, using their current technology as a launch pad to expand upon.
24 A 7 week implementation will include training, information migration and constant review Trail/ Training I will train the guest service agents on the software, using real cases as examples for the work. At the completion of the 2 week trial period, we will have a better idea if Desk.com is the right product to implement. Information Migration We will bring on an additional employee for 1 week to collect all the paper/online information for our 6 sources and put them in a centralized location. This person will also fact check before entering information in to the knowledgebase. Friday Meeting I will hold a 2 hour meeting in which I’ll cover all the points of the software so that everyone understands what we are doing. Review Q&A For 1 month, I will hold a time during the week where we share issues that we are having and possible workarounds that we found. We will critically review the future of the product on July 3. May 11 May 14 May 25 May 28 June 1 June 4 July 3
26 We can address our guest answering problem with Desk.com which will net benefit us roughly $16,000/month The problem with answering guest questions lies in slow answer time and getting the wrong answer The solution is to implement Desk.com The costs to implement ($4,400 with $98/month) are small compared to the benefits ($20,524/month).
27 References Creech, Bill . The Five Pillars of TQM. New York: Truman Talley Books. (1994). p. 478. Nyeck, S., Morales, M., Ladhari, R., & Pons, F. "10 years of service quality measurement: reviewing the use of the SERVQUAL instrument." Cuadernos de Diffusion, (2002). , pp. 101-107. Rector, Rob. CEO of Orbridge. Personal Phone Interview, 8 Mar. 2012. Tantawy, Alaa & Losekoot, Erwin. “An Assessment of Key Hotel Guest Contact Personnel in Handling Guest Complaints,” Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, Volume 1, Issue 4 (2000), pp. 10-17. Tombaugh, Jennifer . CEO of Tauck Tours. Personal Phone Interview. 4 Mar. 2012. Vivek M. Chawla. “What are the main differences between Assistly, Zendesk and/or Tender? Which one is best?” Dec 14, 2011. www.quora.com/, accessed May 6, 2012 Werner Reinartz, Manfred Krafft and Wayne D. The Customer Relationship Management Process: Its Measurement and Impact on Performance. Hoyer Journal of Marketing Research , Vol. 41, No. 3 (Aug., 2004), pp. 293-305
29 Appendix A: Screen Shots, Knowledgebase Agent View
30 Appendix A: Screen Shots, Knowledgebase Guest View
31 Appendix A: Screen Shots,Ticket Tracking Agent View
32 Appendix B: Slow Answer Times Calculations Sample # Number of Calls # of Calls Longer than 5 minutes p UCL LCL 1 25 10 0.4 0.36 0.23 2 25 7 0.28 0.36 0.23 3 25 8 0.32 0.36 0.23 4 25 9 0.36 0.36 0.23 5 25 2 0.08 0.36 0.23 6 25 1 0.04 0.36 0.23 7 25 11 0.44 0.36 0.23 8 25 7 0.28 0.36 0.23 9 25 6 0.24 0.36 0.23 10 25 2 0.08 0.36 0.23 11 25 9 0.36 0.36 0.23 12 25 19 0.76 0.36 0.23 13 25 7 0.28 0.36 0.23 14 25 0 0 0.36 0.23 15 25 13 0.52 0.36 0.23 Average p 0.296 Stdev 0.065 UCL 0.361 LCL 0.231
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