Published on January 13, 2014
Chinese Wisdom for Leaders Huibert de Man en Helen de Haan Wijsheid in Bedrijf, juni 2013
Uw ervaring en kennis • Wie heeft wel eens Chinese filosofie gelezen (origineel of vertaald)? • Wie heeft gelezen over toepassingen van Chinese filosofie in leiderschap/management/strategie? • Wie is in China geweest? • Wie heeft ervaring met zakendoen met Chinese bedrijven? • Welk praktisch nut verwacht u van de Chinese filosofie?
Confucius and Lao Zi 孔子 Kong Zi 551 – 479 bC (Confucius) Different time Different language Different assumptions Different culture 老子Lao Zi 604-507 (?) bC
Sun Zi 孫子Art of War 兵法 Two authors: 孫武 Sun Wu (544496 bC) 孫臏 Sun Bin (380316 bC) Know thyself, the enemy and the terrain: contextual action and clever use of circumstances…
The Chinese Mirror: What it tells us about our thinking • Our two world theory • Unity based on principles • Essences • Transcendental truth •Our individualism • Relationships between individuals • Freedom • Intention •Our style of reasoning • Dialectics and formal logic • Rhetoric and debate • The legal style of reasoning
Chinese quotes: philosophical tea tasting
Wise persons know their limits • 知之為知之，不知為不知，是 知也。 Zhi zhi wei zhi zhi, bu zhi wei bu zhi, shi zhi ye. 知 智 • To know what you know and know what you do not knowthen this is wisdom.
Teachers connect old and New • 子曰:溫故而知新， 可以為師矣 • The master said: reviewing the old as a means of realizing the new - such a person can be considered a teacher 學
Leaders are not selfish • 君子喻於義，小人喻於利 • Exemplary persons understand what is appropriate, petty persons understand what is of personal advantage.
Leaders Care and Develop • 子曰:不患人之不己知，患 不知人也。 • 子曰：君子成人之美，不 成人之惡。小人反是。 • The master said: Don’t worry about not being acknowledged by others, worry about failing to acknowledge them. • The master said: the exemplary person (junzi) helps to bring out the best in others, but does not help to bring out the worst. The petty person does just the opposite.
• 子曰：君子恥其言而過其 行。 Exemplary persons would feel shame if their words were better than their deeds. • 君子欲訥於言敏於行。 The exemplary person wants to be slow to speak yet quick to act. • 論篤是與，君子者乎？色 莊者乎？ Allowing that a person is earnest in his words, the question is: is he an exemplary person or is he just pretending to be serious? 人 ＋言 = 信 person + word = trust
Confucius: ritualized living • • • • • • Li (禮) order, ritual Yi (義) appropriateness, justice Ren(仁) moral quality, humaneness Xiao (孝) respect for parents, piety Zhi (智) wisdom and its practical use Xin(信) keeping word, trustworthyness It is all about balance, harmony 和 he.
The unspeakable origin of the world • Dao De Jing 道德經: chapter 1 道，可道也，非恆道也。 名，可名，非恆名也。 無名，萬物之始也有名， 萬物之母也。 Way-making (dao) that can be put into words is not really way-making And naming (ming) that can assign fixed reference to things is not really naming The nameless (wuming) is the fetal beginnings of everything that is happening (wanwu) While that which is named is their mother.
Wise persons do not Impose their Logic • 道汎呵，其可左右也。 成功遂事而弗名有也。 • Way-making (dao) is an easyflowing stream. Which can run in any direction. With all things accomplished and the work complete, It does not assume any proprietary claim. • 是以聖人之能成大也， 以其不為大也，故能 成大。 • It is thus that the capacity of the sages to become great Is simply because they do not try to do great things. This is why they are indeed able to be great.
Pan Gu: the creation myth Pan Gu separated Dark (Yin 陰) and Light (Yang 陽), pushed Heaven (Tian 天) and Earth (Di 地) apart. The parts of his body became the sun, the moon, the mountains, the rivers etc.
The world: dynamic play of opposites • 易經 Yi Jing = Classical Book of Changes • Mathematical system of YinYang changes ▫ Extremes change into opposites ▫ Every situation contains potential futures ▫ You need to read the situation in terms of change.
A play of opposites… • 將欲翕之，必固張之 將欲弱之，必固強之 將欲去之，必固與之 將欲奪之，必固予之 。 是謂微明。 柔弱勝剛強。 (…) • Whatever is gathered in Must first be stretched out; What ever is weakened Must first be made strong; Whatever is abandoned Must first be joined; Whatever is taken away Must first be given. This is called the subtle within what is evident. The soft and the weak vanquish the hard and the strong. (…)
Daoism: the Wu (無) = ‘do not’ forms • 無為 wuwei non-coercive action • 無形 wuxing without fixed form • 無知 wuzhi unprincipled knowing • 無名 wuming without giving a fixed name • 無欲 wuyu objectless desire • 無心 wuxin unmediated feeling and thinking • 無爭 wuzheng striving without contentiousness Ways of doing, being, knowing, naming and desiring that do not force things, are not coercive.
Chinese art of war: contextual thinking Sun Zi: He who knows the enemy and himself will never in a hundred battles be at risk. He who does not know the enemy but knows himself will sometimes win and sometimes lose; He who knows neither the enemy nor himself Will be at risk in every battle.
Flexible Strategy and Tactics • 勝可知，而不可為 Victory can be anticipated, but it cannot be forced • 始如處女，敵人開戶， 後如脫兔，敵人不及拒。 At first be like a modest maiden And the enemy will open his door. Afterwards be as swift as a scurrying rabbit And the enemy will be too late to resist you.
What do we see in the mirror? ????
Context and agency
Leaders Emperor Yongzheng (1678-1735)
Dark and Light China: dynamic balance Wiertz: Triumph of Light
Natural and rational
Relationship and person
What can we learn from the ancient Chinese? • • • • • Strategy in organizations: context and flexibility Change and stability The organization as a community Moral principles of leadership The balance between soft and hard aspects of management • How talk needs validation in action • The limitations of language and debate •…
The End 完
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a superior form of wisdom, as that of the Gnostics, supposed to have been acquired mystically. See also mysticism. logia.
Chinese English French German Italian Portuguese Russian Spanish Arabic Dictionary Explore Get premium ... Definition of wisdom in English: noun [mass noun]
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