Published on February 27, 2014
Language Unified • Common spoken lingua franca-Mandarin • Common writing scriptsimplified characters • Common terminologies, e.g. ideology, politics, etc. Diverse • Different dialect groups • Different writing scripts, .e.g H.K. & Macau vs. Mainland 大陆/大陸 • Different terminologies, e.g. Jiang vs. He 江/河, fuwuyuan vs. xiaojie 服务员 /小姐
Culture Unified • Common philosophiesBuddhism, Taoism and Confucianism • Common religionsBuddhism, Taoism and Confucianism • Common customs and festivals- Spring Festival, Qing Ming, Mid-Autumn, etc. Diverse • Different interpretations of philosophies- More philosophical or religious? Han Buddhism vs. Tibetan Buddhism • Various forms of religionsDeity and ancestral worship • Different ways of celebrating festivals and practices- Compare rituals and practices.
Living Habits • • • • Unified Family as the main unit of society. Frugality as a virtue Pragmatism Staying rooted to homeland/hometown (luoyeguigen 落叶归根) Diverse • Different eating habitscompare culinary styles • Different interpretations to the idea of staying rooted to homeland/hometown • Different ways of behavior, based on climate and geography.
Confucianism’s Influence • • • • • • Confucianism- Focuses on the present. Personal development, Values-driven, Shapes social/communal order, Emphasis on education as a form of success; Shapes interpersonal relationships.
Buddhism’s Influence • Buddhism- Focuses on the afterlife • Shapes religious beliefs and rituals, • Explains relationships
Daoism’s Influence • Daoism- Focuses on extending life • Health and diet, • Explains relationship between nature and man, • Shaping religious rituals and beliefs; • Shaping the appreciation for the arts
Definition of Modernization • Globalization-Integration of China into the global community; • Urbanization-Improvement of China’s infrastructure and living conditions; • Economic reforms-Improves China’s economic conditions from a traditional agrarian economy to tertiary sectors; • Influx of foreign ideas-Reception of foreign ideas, especially from the West.
Impact of Modernization • • • • • • • On Chinese society: Family; Traditions; Culture & Customs; Demographics; Lifestyle; Mindset or Perspectives
Impact of Modernization • • • • On the Chinese economy: China’s economy in the world; China’s domestic economy; China’s economic relations with other countries; • Environmental management.
Impact of Modernization • • • • • On governance and legitimacy: Methods of governance; Socio-political stability; CCP’s position as the sole ruling party; Various political institutions in China;
Impact of Modernization • • • • • On China’s diplomacy: Rationale of China’s foreign policies; China’s relations with other countries; China’s status in the global community; China’s roles and functions in the world today.
Women in China • • • • • Traditional roles and status of women: Housekeeper; Child-bearer; Submissive to male members of the family; Under-privileged group in society
Women in China • • • • Change in role of women: More privileges given; Breadwinner of the family; Taking on more important socio-economicpolitical roles; • No longer the submissive gender.
Women in China • What remains: • Taking on multiple roles; • Still discriminated against in family and society; • Abuses against women remain high; • Social values still prejudiced against women;
Ethnic Minorities in China • • • • • • Grievances: Social and economic discrimination; Low autonomy in minorities-dominated areas; Political distrust; Cultural misconceptions; Socio-cultural infringements.
Ethnic Minorities in China • • • • • • Reasons or Factors that give rise to grievances: Cultural and Religious differences; Geographical vastness; Uneven economic development; Different social norms Historical differences and animosities.
Ethnic Minorities in China • • • • • Policies to appease or resolve ethnic conflicts: Economic Policies; Cultural-Religious Policies; Social Policies; Political Initiatives.
Ethnic Minorities in China • • • • • Effective Increased affluence; Better standard-of-living; Better infrastructure; Better social status; Promotes cross-cultural understanding. Ineffective • More misunderstanding and conflicts; • Widening economic gap; • Increased exploitations.
Ethnic Minorities in China • • • • Happy Yunnan minorities; Manchurians; Koreans; Zhuang Unhappy • Mongolians; • Tibetans; • Uyghurs