China 4

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Published on October 10, 2007

Author: luie

Source: authorstream.com

Ancient China:  Ancient China degree of isolation distance from Middle East youngest Primary Phase culture in the Old World Prehistoric Society: Yangshao:  Prehistoric Society: Yangshao 5000-3000 BCE Banpo Village Painted pottery Bronze tools Unique features:  Unique features intensive garden-style agriculture do not adopt the plow until very late unique soil: loess Early History:  Early History legendary outline three principal Neolithic Cultures later tradition: the Hsia dynasty no traces first historical civilization: the Shang dynasty Slide5:  Pre-dynastic cultures of China Neolithic period The Earliest Dynasties:  The Earliest Dynasties Xia C. 2200 BCE Organized through village network Hereditary monarchy Flood control Shang 1766-1122 BCE Zhou 1122-256 BCE Slide7:  Neolithic village at Ban Po The Shang Dynasty:  The Shang Dynasty Yellow River near the frontier traditional date: 1500 B.C. invaders eventually absorbed Shang Dynasty:  Shang Dynasty Bronze metallurgy from 1200 BCE State monopoly Horse-drawn chariots, other wheeled vehicles Large armies Political organization: network of fortified cities, loyal to center 1000 cities Capital moved six times Impressive architecture at Ao, Yin Other regional kingdoms coexist: Sanxingdui Distinct Characteristics:  Distinct Characteristics silk no animal milk or milk products ancestor worship central place of the family Operative unit of Society:  Operative unit of Society the family not the individual not the state not the religion Other features:  Other features ornate architecture chopsticks ideographic script still readable by modern Chinese divination Slide15:  Oracle bone with early ideographic script Slide16:  An example of Shang bronze (religious objects) cast using a “lost wax” process Slide17:  More bronze ware, with early ideograms Slide18:  A bronze temple bell -many will strike two distinct and separate notes, depending on which part of the bell is struck Organization:  Organization peasants support nobles, officials, bureaucracy, etc. government centered in towns warrior elite poor live in primitive conditions Distinctions:  Distinctions between rich and poor price of civilization ? between male and female infanticide footbinding arranged marriages multiple wives Early ideology:  Early ideology Yin and Yang Yin: female, dark, weak, wet, passive Yang: male, bright, strong, dry, active balance of opposites End of the Primary Phase:  End of the Primary Phase not as serious in China nomadic invaders the Zhou dynasty 1027 B.C. replaced one ruling class with another “meet the new boss...same as the old boss.” Slide24:  Zhou dynasty 1100-256 B.C. Zhou (Chou) Dynasty, 1122-256 BCE:  Zhou (Chou) Dynasty, 1122-256 BCE No law codes: rule by decree “Mandate of Heaven” Aggregation of villages opposed to Shang leadership Decentralization of authority Development of cheap iron weaponry ends Shang monopoly on Bronze Early money economy Decline of the Zhou Dynasty:  Decline of the Zhou Dynasty Decentralized leadership style allows for building of regional powers Increasing local independence, refusal to pay Zhou taxes Iron metallurgy allows for widespread creation of weaponry Northern invaders weaken Zhou dynasty, beginning 8th c BCE 771 B.C. Zhou driven east Internal dissention: the Period of the Warring States (403-221 BCE) The Eastern Zhou:  The Eastern Zhou ruled until 256 B.C. power held by local aristocrats first Chinese literature evolution of bronze technology Political theory:  Political theory the mandate of Heaven universal monarch favors consolidation xenophobic Emperor is the Son of Heaven feudal monarchy The Period of Warring States:  The Period of Warring States 771 B.C. dozen-plus states balance of power until 500’s period of consolidation by warfare warfare chronic Slide30:  The Period of the Warring States, ca. 500 B.C. Intellectual development:  Intellectual development response to crisis and uncertainty Confucianism a sort of philosophy Taoism a sort of religion Zhou Literature:  Zhou Literature Confucius Book of Changes Manual for divination Book of History Book of Etiquette (Book of Rites) Book of Songs Little survived Often written on perishable bamboo strips Many destroyed by Emperor of Qin dynasty in 221 BCE The Good Old Days:  The Good Old Days breakdown of “traditional family values” no trust or confidence in government filled with thieves, liars, and murderers no respect for the ancestors “Why do the wicked flourish?” Confucius (ca. 551-479 B.C.):  Confucius (ca. 551-479 B.C.) poor family well-educated in the “classics” ambitious (wanted to be a bureaucrat...) couldn’t get honest work...so he became a teacher Slide35:  Kung Fu-Tse Tomb of Master Kung Confucius, con’t:  Confucius, con’t wrote nothing--his followers wrote about him difficult to separate myth from fact the Analects his “sayings” The Analects:  The Analects looked back to the “good old days” but favored some new ideas along with the old rejection of the idea of in-born nobility proper training, education, and aptitude make a “gentleman” not simply birth into a certain family Marks of gentility:  Marks of gentility goodness, wisdom, courage moderation of outer and inner emotions knowledge of traditional rites dissociation from all men who did not practice these things simple satisfaction in the practice of virtue for its own sake Circumstances favoring his ideas:  Circumstances favoring his ideas lack of mythopoetic urge lack of a strong religious tradition and experience lack of prophets lack of anthropomorphic gods Important Confucian concepts:  Important Confucian concepts Ren – innate goodness in human beings Li – normal standard of conduct the TAO –what is appropriate no speculation on metaphysics Confucian Ideas:  Confucian Ideas Ethics and politics Avoided religion, metaphysics Junzi: “superior individuals” Role in government service Emphasis on Zhou Dynasty texts later formed core texts of Chinese education Confucius, con’t :  Confucius, con’t a failure? ideas spread by students adopted by the Han dynasty Taoism:  Taoism Mo Tzu: ca. 470-391 B.C. Lao Tzu: 4th or 3rd century taught about the Tao Taoism:  Taoism supplied the metaphysical multiple lines of thought very fluid Taoism:  Taoism Critics of Confucianism Passivism, rejection of active attempts to change the course of events Founder: Laozi, 6th c. BCE The Tao te Ching (Classic of Way and of Virtue) Zhuangzi (named for author, 369-236 BCE) Basic concepts:  Basic concepts pursuit of justice and righteousness Wu wei wu: “ Doing by not doing.” withdrawal and contemplation withdrawal from society #1: The Tao:  #1: The Tao The tao that can be described is not the eternal Tao. The name that can be spoken is not the eternal Name. The nameless is the boundary of Heaven and Earth. The named is the mother of creation. Freed from desire, you can see the hidden mystery. By having desire, you can only see what is visibly real. Yet mystery and reality emerge from the same source. This source is called darkness. Darkness born from darkness. The beginning of all understanding. #31: Maintaining Peace:  #31: Maintaining Peace Armies are tools of violence; They cause men to hate and fear. The sage will not join them. His purpose is creation; Their purpose is destruction. Weapons are tools of violence, Not of the sage; He uses them only when there is no choice, And then calmly, and with tact, For he finds no beauty in them. Whoever finds beauty in weapons Delights in the slaughter of men; And who delights in slaughter Cannot content himself with peace. So slaughters must be mourned And conquest celebrated with a funeral. The Zhou (Chou) and Qin:  The Zhou (Chou) and Qin rise of the Qin new technology gave land to peasants new military draft new bureaucracy The Qin and the Legalist tradition:  The Qin and the Legalist tradition ideology of rule absolute power of the ruler people existed to serve the state destroy Confucian philosophy? The First Emperor:  The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221-210 BCE) founds new dynasty as “First Emperor” Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedent Basis of rule: centralized bureacracy Massive public works begun Incl. precursor to Great Wall Shi Huangdi:  Shi Huangdi united China in 221 B.C. ruled by the Legalist theory massive conscription for labor China under the Qin dynasty, 221-207 B.C.E.:  China under the Qin dynasty, 221-207 B.C.E. Resistance to Qin Policies:  Resistance to Qin Policies Emperor orders execution of all critics Orders burning of all ideological works Some 460 scholars buried alive Others exiled Massive cultural losses Slide55:  Tomb of Shi Huangdi Slide57:  The Great Canal Rise of the Han:  Rise of the Han rebellion of peasants Lui Bang a successful failure Han dynasty:  Han dynasty ruled for 400 years new bureaucracy emphasis on centralization weakening of the aristocracy imperial expansion destruction of the Legalists East Asia and central Asia at the time of Han Wudi, Ca. 87 B.C.E.:  East Asia and central Asia at the time of Han Wudi, Ca. 87 B.C.E. Slide61:  The Han Dynasty Han society:  Han society the Confucian educated elite free peasants non-free peasants improvement in women's’ status beginnings of “secret societies” Population Growth in the Han Dynasty:  Population Growth in the Han Dynasty General prosperity Increased agricultural productivity Taxes small part of overall income Produce occasionally spoiling in state granaries Books: :  Books: H.L. Creel. The Birth of China Sebastian De Grazia, ed. Masters of Chinese Political Thought Mark Elvin. The Patterns of the Chinese Past Michael Loewe. Everyday Life in Ancient China Laurence G. Thompson. Chinese Religion: An Introduction Martin Palmer. The Elements of Taoism More Books:  More Books Stephen Mitchell. Tao Te Ching Thomas Cleary. The Essential Tao Isabelle Robinet. Taoism: Growth of a Religion

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