Published on August 14, 2013
STAGES OF THE LIFE SPAN Prepared by DIANE R. SOLVER, RN
1O STAGES IN THE LIFE SPAN 1.Prenatal Period – conception to birth 2.Infancy- divided into two periods a.Partunatal period- from birth to cutting of the umbilical cord b.Neonatal period (newborn)- from the cutting of the umbilical cord to the end of the second week (28 days).
4. Early Childhood – two to six years 5. Late childhood- six to ten to twelve years 6. Puberty or pre-adolescence- ten to twelve to thirteen or fourteen years 7. Adolescence- thirteen or fourteen to eighteen years 8. Early adulthood- eighteen to forty years 9. Middle Age- forty to sixty years 10. Old age or senescence- sixty years to death.
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT The prenatal period is ten lunar months of 28 days in length or nine calendar months. Average length of the prenatal period: 38 weeks or 266 days 70 % of babies: 36 to 40 weeks (252 to 280 days)
GESTATION- Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth. During this time, the baby grows and develops inside the mother's womb. Gestational age is the common term used during pregnancy to describe how far along the pregnancy is. It is measured in weeks, from the first day of the woman's last menstrual cycle to the current date. A normal pregnancy can range from 38 to 42 weeks.
3 Stages of Prenatal Development a.Germinal Stage/Pre-embryonic- (fertilization to two weeks). The germinal stage is the prenatal, developmental stage that begins at fertilization and lasts through the second week. During this time, the fertilized egg/ovum (now called a zygote, and consists of a single cell) makes it way down the fallopian tube, and begins to have cell reproduction.
Eventually, the single celled zygote becomes a multi celled ball that attaches itself to the wall of the uterus around the end of the second week, which constitutes the beginning of the embryonic stage.
Layers of Blastocyst 1. Ectoderm (upper layer) – will become the outer layer of skin, the nails, the hair, the teeth, the sensory organs, and the nervous system, including the brain and the spinal cord. 2. Mesoderm (middle layer)- inner layer of skin, muscles, skeleton and bone marrow, heart and blood corpuscles, blood vessels, kidneys and gonads.
3. Endoderm (inner layer) – will develop the linings of nearly all of the internal organs, including those of the lungs, trachea and pharynx, and digestive tract including the pancreas and the liver.
Nearly all defects and three-quarters of all spontaneous abortions occur during the critical first trimester of pregnancy. Important dangers include improper maternal nutrition, drug intake by the mother, incompatibility of blood type with the mother’s blood type, medical x- rays, and external environmental hazards.
b. THE EMBRYONIC STAGE- (two to 8- 12 weeks). During this stage, the major body systems (respiratory, alimentary, nervous) and organs develop. Because of the rapid growth and development in this stage, the embryo is most vulnerable to prenatal environmental influences. Almost all the developmental birth defects (cleft palate, incomplete or missing limbs, blindness, deafness) occur during the first trimester of pregnancy.
The most severely defective embryos usually do not survive beyond this time and are aborted spontaneously. Spontaneous abortion/miscarriage- is the expulsion from the uterus of a conceptus that could not have survived outside the womb. -refers to the loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation.
Causes of Spontaneous Miscarriage Most common cause is abnormal fetal formation, due either to a teratogenic factor (radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs) or to a chromosomal aberration. Implantation abnormalities. Infection in a woman (e.g, rubella, syphilis, UTI) Ingestion of teratogenic drugs, alcohol.
BABY DEVELOPMENT VIDEO
C. FETAL STAGE- (8-12 weeks to birth).
4-6 Weeks Gestational Age The lungs are beginning to form, however; the major portion of the lung development is yet to occur. Brain activity can be recorded. Eyes are present, but no eyelids yet. The heart appears as a prominent bulge on the anterior surface. Structures that will become arms and legs, called limb buds, begin to appear.
8 Weeks Gestational Age
Organogenesis is complete. Elbows are visible. Facial features - the eyes, nose, lips, and tongue - continue to develop. The outer ears begin to take shape. The hands and feet have fingers and toes, but might still be webbed. Organs begin to be controlled by the brain. The length is about 1/2 to 3/4 inch.
10 Weeks Gestational Age
The developing unborn child is now called a fetus, rather than an embryo. The head is half the length of the body. The arms and legs are long and thin. Red blood cells are produced. The weight is less than ½ of an ounce. The length is about 1 1/4 to 1 3/4 inches
12 Weeks Gestational Age
Nail beds are forming on fingers and toes. Some reflexes, such as babinsky reflex, are present. Tooth buds are present. Heartbeat is audible through doppler. All body parts and organs are present. The hands can make a fist. The weight is about 1½ ounce. The length is about 2 to 3 inches.
14 Weeks Gestational Age
The skin is almost transparent. The mouth makes sucking motions. Amniotic fluid is swallowed. The arms are in proportion to the body. The liver and pancreas are starting to work. The weight is about 2 ounces. The length is about 3 to 4 inches.
16 Weeks Gestational Age
Fetal heart sounds are audible with an ordinary stethoscope. Lanugo (the fine downy hair on the back and arms of the newborns, which apparently serves as a source of insulation for body heat) is well formed. Sex can be determined via ultrasound. The head and body become proportional. The weight is approximately 3.9 ounces The length is about 4 to 5 inches.
20 Weeks Gestational Age
Spontaneous fetal movements can be sensed by the mother. Eyebrows and lashes appear. Hearing can be demonstrated by response to sudden sound. Pupil are capable of reacting to light. Time of rapid brain growth. The unborn child can turn its entire body side to side and front to back. The weight is about 11 ounces. The length is about 6 to 7 inches.
24 Weeks Gestational Age
Unique footprints and fingerprints are present. The skin becomes less transparent as fat begins to deposit. Actions such as hiccupping, squinting, smiling, and frowning might be seen through ultrasound. Surviving premature babies might have severe disabilities and require long-term intensive care.
Meconium is present as far as the rectum. The weight is about 1 to 1 1/2 pounds. The length is about 8 to 9 inches.
28 Weeks Gestational Age
Another person can hear a heartbeat by listening to the pregnant woman's abdomen. Lung alveoli begin to mature, and surfactant can be demonstrated in amniotic fluid. There is a good chance of survival (with intensive care treatment) if birth occurs. The weight is about 2 to 2 1/4 pounds. The length is about 10 to 13 inches.
32 Weeks Gestational Age
The lungs are still developing. Body temperature is partially under control. The skin is thicker, with more color. There is a good chance of long-term survival and the risk of long-term disability is low. Birth position may be assumed. The weight is about 3 to 4 pounds. The length is about 16 to 17 inches.
36 Weeks Gestational Age
Fine hair begins to disappear. Body fat has increased. The fingernails reach the end of the fingertips. Most babies turn into a vertex or head down presentation during this month. The weight is about 5 to 6 pounds. The length is about 16 to 19 inches.
38-40 Weeks Gestational Age
A newborn is considered full-term at 38 weeks. Small breast buds are present on both sexes. The unborn child can grasp firmly. The unborn child turns toward a light source. The average weight is greater than 6 pounds. The length is about 19 to 21 inches.
BIRTH OCCURS IN 3 STAGES: 1.First stage: Dilation of the cervix 2.Second stage: Descent and emergence of the baby 3.Third stage: Expulsion of the placenta and the umbilical cord.
STAGES OF LABOR FIRST STAGE Latent phase: begins at the onset of regularly perceived uterine contractions and ends when rapid cervical dilation begins. Contraction during this phase are mild and short, lasting 20-40seconds. Cervical effacement occurs, and the cervix dilates from 0- 3 cm. The phase lasts approximately 6 hours in a nullipara and 4.5 hours in a multipara.
Active phase: cervical dilation occurs more rapidly, increasing from 4 to 7 cm. Contractions grow stronger, lasting 40 to 60 seconds, and occur approximately every 3-5 minutes. This phase lasts approximately3 hours in a nullipara and 2 hours in a multipara. Show (increased in vaginal secretions) and perhaps spontaneous rupture of the membranes may occur during this time.
Transition phase- Contractions reach their peak of intensity, occurring every 2 to 3 minutes with a duration of 60 to 90 seconds and causing maximum dilatation of 8 to 10 cm. During this phase a woman may experience intense discomfort, so strong that it is accompanied by nausea and vomiting. A woman may also experience a feeling of loss of control, anxiety, panic or irritability.
Second stage The second stage involves the actual delivery of the baby. This expulsion stage is quiet variable and can last anywhere from 2 to 60 minutes or more. As the fetal head touches the internal side of the perineum, the perineum begins to bulge. In the average delivery, the baby’s head appears first, an event referred to as crowning. The rest of the body soon follows.
Third stage The third stage of labor, the placental stage, begins with the birth of the infant and ends with the delivery of the placenta. During this stage, mild contractions continue for some time. They help decrease the blood flow to the uterus and reduce the uterus to normal size.
BIRTH PROCESS VIDEO
The Lamaze Method Developed by Dr. Ferdinand Lamaze It includes instruction in anatomy and physiology to remove fear of the unknown; training in respiration techniques such as (rapid breathing and panting) to ease pain at each stage of labor; and cognitive restructuring through focusing the eyes on something or sucking on ice, to help the woman concentrate on sensations other than her contractions.
The Leboyer Method Frederick Leboyer, author of Birth Without Violence, encourages the mothers to take up Indian chanting and thus to transform pregnancy and childbirth into a spiritual experience. Leboyer is suggesting that the mother breath in deeply and slowly from the belly, chanting a loud pure sound on the outbreath and with the contraction; and then wait at the end of the outbreath for the contraction to be over, before breathing in again.
The Bradley Method Bradley method feel that there is danger in current obstetrical procedures. They disavow the safety sonograms, episiotomy, and regional anesthesia. It is stressed that women are capable of and entitled to a birth without drugs or medical interventions. They encourage the use of midwives rather than “technical oriented” doctors. Parents should take the responsibility for the birth place, procedures, and emergency back-up. It teaches conditioning exercises and muscle relaxation in labor.
The Kitzinger Method It uses mental imagery to enhance relaxation. The use of touch, massage and visualization helps the woman flow with the contraction rather than ignore or breath it away. The mother is encouraged to labor in any position that is comfortable for her. Pushing is done when the body tells you. Between pushes, short breaths are taken.
The Gamper Method The key is the self-determination and confidence instilled by instructors in the ability to work and cooperate with the natural forces of childbirth. The emphasis is on the contraction, rather than away from the contraction. A normal, natural rate of deep abdominal breathing is taught to be able to help the woman work with the contraction.
The Simskin Method The Simskin approach to childbirth works with the strengths of the couple giving birth. They are encourage to use whatever means of breathing and style which helps them as individuals.
The Noble Method It involves relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles and learning ways to relax them. Her gentle pushing or breathing the baby out technique is now incorporated in many classes. Her approach emphasizes women listening to their body.
The Odent Method Odent allowed his laboring mothers to submerge in a pool of water. This appears to help some women ease labor pain. When some of the women were reluctant to leave at the time of delivery, they were delivered submerged, without drowning the baby since the baby has lived in fluid for nine months.
INFANCY The period of infancy covers approximately the first two weeks of life- the time needed for the newborn to adjust to the new environment outside the mothers body. This period is divided into two: a.Period of the partunate - from birth up to the cutting and tying of the umbilical cord. b.Period of the neonate – from the cutting and tying of the umbilical cord to the end of the second week.
Different Kinds of Reflexes Sucking Swallowing Placing Tonic Neck Stepping Moro Darwinian (Grasping) Babinsky Swimming Rooting
Tonic Neck reflex
Darwinian (Grasping/Palmar) reflex
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