Published on February 24, 2014
Cap Growth starts at the top & moves downward.
Cephalocaudal (ceph alo caudal) Sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top. Large proportion of total body Occupied by head Prenatal development Early infancy Growth starts at head Physical growth Differentiation of features Shoulders, etc. downward
Cephalocaudal cont. Sensory & motor development See objects before control torso Use hands before walk or crawl Nevertheless, use feet to touch something (12 weeks) before hands (16 weeks)
Penis Sorry, all I could think of. Proximodistal Growth starts at center & moves outward
Proximodistal (proxi mo distal) (Sensory & motor development) Sequence in which growth starts at center of body & moves toward extremities Sensory & motor development Control muscles of trunk & arms before hands
Body systems grow & mature independently Nervous system matures rapidly Body size slower Rapid Growth Slow Growth
Cephalocaudal principle indicates Brain closer to adult size than any other physical structure
Brain Development At Birth 100 billion neurons Areas of brain do not mature uniformly. Prefrontal cortex finished developing when?
Brain Development Neurons Axon Dendrites Myelin sheath Terminal buttons Synapses
Axon Carries signals away from cell body Dendrites Carry signals toward cell body
How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? Neuron Info processing nerve cell Axons & dendrites Myelin sheath Layer of fat cells Encases & insulates most axons Myelination continues into adolescence Helps electrical signals travel faster down axon
Terminal buttons Release neurotransmitters into synapses Synapses Tiny gaps between neurons' fibers
1st yr’s of life Neurons change in 2 significant ways 1. Myelination 2. Increase in neural pathways
How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? At birth 1 month 3 months 15 months 24 months
How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? Synapses: Tiny gaps between neurons' fibers Neurotransmitters “Blooming” & “pruning”
Blooming (development or increase) in synaptic overproduction Vary considerably by brain region
Example of blooming in a region: Visual cortex Blooming peaks @ 4 mo.'s
Prefrontal cortex Higher-level thinking Self-regulation Not fully developed until @ 23 yrs. Most prolonged development of any brain region Peak of synaptic overproduction @ 3 yr age Adult density achieved in adolescence Heredity & environment affect timing
Pruning (decrease) in neurons Unused connections replaced by other pathways or disappear Vary considerably by brain region Begins @ early adolescence & ends @ age 16.
How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? Synaptic Density in Human Brain from Infancy to Adulthood 70 60 Synaptic density 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1500 2000 3000 Age in days (from conception) 4000 6000 8000 10,000
Adolescence 2nd wave of: Overproduction of synapses Pruning Prefrontal cortex changes rapidly Improved control over: Planning Attention Goal directed activity Poor risk assessment
Adolescence Preform poorly on tests of emotions Late adolescence emotional processing moves to frontal lobe Improvement in risk assessment
Cerebral cortex Covers forebrain like a wrinkled cap 2 hemispheres (halves) Lateralization Specialization of function in one hemisphere or other Ex: Language, left hemisphere
Brain organized contralateral (other side) Information for right side transmitted to left Each hemisphere has specific brain functions
Handedness: Most right hand Footedness: Most right foot Ocular Dominance: Right 2/3 Left 2/3 Some neither Not related to hand dominance Facial Asymmetry: Left side of the face is more expressive of emotion Right displays verbal information
Girls better at left-brain dominated Language Better at understanding nonverbal cues Jack did not notice Dr. mad Boys better at right-brain dominated Mathematical reasoning
Equal, F&M Achievement motivation Visual or auditory learning Analytic ability
Corpus callosum Connects hemispheres Thicker in females Limbic systems Larger Frontal Cortex Decision making Denser
Amygdala Fight or Flight Larger in males More developed spatial skills
Social roles Dependent upon culture U.S. social bias Girls expected to be nurturing & empathic Boys?
More variation in personality More variation between males In skills
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