Child chapter 2.4

67 %
33 %
Information about Child chapter 2.4

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: professorjcc

Source: slideshare.net

2 Children Birth & the Neonate 2.4

Birthing Methods & Delivery Options What Happens During Birth?  99% of U.S. births in hospitals  Other options – Freestanding birth center – Home delivery

Birthing Methods & Delivery Options  Who helps varies across cultures – 91% U.S. births physicians – Some exclude fathers – Some family members – Open to community

What Happens During Birth? Birthing Methods & Delivery Options  Midwives – Norm, most of world – U.S. Attend 8% births – U.S. certified nurse midwives  Deliver babies – More time with patient in prenatal visits – Counseling, education – Emotional support

Birthing Methods & Delivery Options What Happens During Birth?  Doulas – No medical care  Do not deliver babies – Support before, during, & after childbirth  Physical  Emotional  Educational – Most in U.S. work independently, typically function as part of ‘birthing team’

Birthing Methods & Delivery Options What Happens During Birth?  Natural childbirth – Goal: reduce pain by reducing fear  Education  Breathing techniques  Relaxation techniques  Prepared childbirth (Lamaze method) – Similar to natural childbirth – Special breathing technique in final stages of labor

Birthing Methods & Delivery Options What Happens During Birth?  Other methods to reduce pain & stress during labor & childbirth – Waterbirth – Massage – Acupuncture – Hypnosis – Music therapy

Stages of Birth  3 stages of birth – Stage 1  @ 12 - 24 hrs. – Stage 2  @ 45 min’s - 1 hour – Stage 3  Lasts only minutes

Effacement of the Cervix Becomes – Thinner – Shorter Starts – Couple weeks before delivery

What Happens During Birth? Stages of Birth  1st stage: Dilation & Effacement of the Cervix – @ 12 - 24 hrs.  Longest stage – Contractions @ 15 – 20 min’s apart  Closer together as birth nears – Contractions dilate cervix to open @ 4 inches .  Allows baby to move into birth canal

What Happens During Birth? Stages of Birth  2nd stage : Delivery of the Baby – @ 45 min’s - 1 hour – Begins when:  baby’s head moves through cervix & birth canal – Ends when:  baby completely emerges – Mother pushes down, contractions come @ every minute

Stages of Birth  3rd stage: Placenta (afterbirth) – Placenta, umbilical cord, & other membranes detached & expelled – Fastest stage  minutes

What Happens During Birth? Cesarean Section  Cesarean Delivery – Baby removed from uterus through incision in abdomen when  Baby is in breech or crosswise position  Head too large for mother’s pelvis  Vaginal bleeding has occurred in pregnancy – U.S. births by C-sections increased since 2002 – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjgxKcjnimY

NEWBORN ASSESSMENT

PRETERM, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT, SMALL-FOR DATE

Preterm & Small-for-Date Infants  Low-birth-weight infant under 5.5 lbs – Very low - under 3 lbs – Extremely low - under 2 lbs  Preterm – Born 3 or more weeks early

Preterm & Small-for-Date Infants  Small for date – May be preterm/full term – Birth weight below normal  Increased use of progestin to prevent preterm births – Lowered preterm births 1/3

Preterm & Small-for-Date Infants   Consequences of preterm & LBW Most low birth weight infants – normal & healthy  As a group – – • More developmental & health problems Risk increases as gestation age decreases Potential problems include • • • • brain injuries lung & liver diseases learning disabilities breathing problems

Consequences of Preterm & LBW • Norwegian study – Preterm-birth adolescents higher risk for:  language delays  learning problems  behavior problems/delinquency involvement

2.5 INFANT CARE

The Postpartum Period Bonding  Close connection, especially physical bond, between parents & newborn in period shortly after birth – Doctors suggest:  “rooming in” – Newborn kept in mother's hospital room  Immediate bonding – Not necessary for emotional health  Adoption?

The Postpartum Period Postpartum Depression  Period after childbirth – Mother adjusts physically & psychologically to process of childbearing – Lasts about @ 6 weeks  Involution – Process by which uterus returns to pre-pregnant size – 5 - 6 weeks

8. Postpartum Period

The Postpartum Period Postpartum Depression  Emotional & Psychological Adjustments – Emotional fluctuations due to:  Hormonal changes  Fatigue  Inadequate rest  Inexperience or lack of confidence  Extensive demands may cause – Anxiety, depression, coping difficulties

Emotional & Psychological Adjustments  Postpartum depression – Strong feelings of  Sadness  Anxiety  Despair – Gets worse without treatment

Emotional and Psychological Adjustments The Postpartum Period  Postpartum depression treatments – Antidepressants – Psychotherapy; cognitive therapy is best  Postpartum depression affects – Mother-infant interaction – Risk of additional psychological disorders

Emotional and Psychological Adjustments The Postpartum Period  Father’s adjustment – Considerable adjustment & stress  Attention on infant decreases couple’s time  May feel unneeded – Father’s postpartum reactions  Prenatal involvement can lessen feelings of depression

Infant Nutrition & Health • Infants in 1 yr.  Triple weight – Increase length 50% – 50 calories per day per lb. of weight – High-calorie, highenergy foods & fats very important  NO NONFAT FOODS

Infant Nutrition & Health  Healthy infants need: – Loving, supportive feeding environment – Breast milk – Gradual increase of chew-&-swallow – More fruits & vegetables, less junk food – Demand feeding becoming more popular – Poor dietary patterns can cause overweight

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? Co-sleeping  Culture and Sleeping Arrangements – Sharing bed common in many cultures – American Academy of Pediatrics – Discourages co-sleeping because of Stress SIDS risk

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?  Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and dies without apparent cause – – – – – – Highest cause of infant death in U.S. Highest risk is 2 - 4 mo.'s of age Sleeping on back reduces risk Less common in: bedroom with fan infant who sleeps with pacifier

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  Thoughts?

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically?  Highest risks – – – – – – – – Lower birth weight Siblings with SIDS Sleep apnea Lower SES groups Exposure to cigarette smoke Placement in soft bedding Abnormal brain stem functioning African American & Inuit infants

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? Breast Versus Bottle Feeding  Breast milk – – – – – – – – Fewer gastrointestinal infections Lower respiratory tract infections Reduces effects of asthma in first 3 mo’s Reduce risk of skin inflammation May lessen likelihood of obesity Lowers risk of childhood & adult diabetes Less risk of experiencing SIDS Claims of no link to allergy prevention

How Do Infants Grow and Develop Physically? Malnutrition in Infancy  Early weaning can cause deficiencies  Can develop: – Marasmus – Wasting away of body tissues infant’s 1st yr.

Malnutrition in Infancy Kwashiorkor  Deficiency in protein  Abdomen, feet swollen with water  If not fatal, effects detrimental  Lowest SES  Aided by supplementary feeding

Nonorganic Failure to Thrive  Child may die  Occurs before 18 mo.'s.  Denied – – – Affection Emotional Support Stimulation  Harry Harlow experiment

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

The Developing Child Chapter 4.2 & 4.3 flashcards | Quizlet

Vocabulary words for The Developing Child Chapter 4.2 & 4.3. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.
Read more

Lost Child 2.2 - Read Lost Child Chapter 2.2 Online - Page 4

Lost Child - Read Lost Child 2.2 Online Reader Tips:Click on the Lost Childmanga image or use left-right keyboard arrow keys to go to the next page.
Read more

SparkNotes: The Good Earth: Chapters 2–4

A summary of Chapters 2–4 in Pearl S. Buck's The Good Earth. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Good Earth and what it ...
Read more

RULES OF TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES CHILD ...

rules of tennessee department of human services child support services division chapter 1240-2-4 child support guidelines table of contents 1240-2-4-.01 ...
Read more

Child Development Practice Exm Chpt 2-4 - ProProfs Quiz

A practice exam for the book Infants and Children by Laura E. Berk. covers Chapter 2-4.
Read more

CHILDREN CHAPTER BOOKS CCB11-ISRG7

PDF File: Children Chapter Books - CCB11-ISRG7 2/4 Children Chapter Books This type of Children Chapter Books can be a very detailed document. You will ...
Read more

4 destinies, One child Chapter 2, a pitch perfect fanfic ...

Beca knew it wasn't right to leave Emily with Chloe but...she didn't want Chloe to be alone. "Why? Why did you do it, Chloe?" Beca asked herself.
Read more

SparkNotes: To Kill a Mockingbird: Chapters 2–3

A summary of Chapters 2–3 in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of To Kill a Mockingbird ...
Read more

Lost Child 2.2 - Read Lost Child Chapter 2.2 Online - Page 4

Lost Child 2.2 Chapter online. You can also go mangalist to read other series or check latest manga updates for new releases
Read more