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Child 3.2

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Information about Child 3.2

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: professorjcc

Source: slideshare.net

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3 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Maturation 3.2 1

Most obvious feature of physical growth. HEIGHT 2

HEIGHT • Average US newborn • 20” long • Year 1: Grow 50% • 30” long • Year 2: 5” • Until adolescence • Growth speed slowly decreases 3

CEPHALOCAUDAL • Cap • Growth starts at the top & moves downward. • Birth Head • Head 25% body length • Years 1 & 2 • Torso & limbs begin to catch up • Adult Head • Head 1/8th of height 4

CHANGES IN PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY DURING GROWTH 5

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS 6

Individual Differences in Infancy Assessed for Predictions MEASURES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT • Gesell: • Distinguish abnormal babies for adoption agencies • Developmental quotient (DQ): • Overall developmental score • 4 categories • Motor • Language • Adaptive • Personal-social 7

Individual Differences in Infancy Assessed for Predictions MEASURES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT • Bayley Scales of Infant Development • Bayley-III • Age 1-3 • Widely used if problem suspected • Assesses infant, predicts later behavior 8

BAYLEY KIT 9

MILESTONES IN GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 10

CULTURAL VARIATIONS How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? • Reach motor milestones in different cultures • Based on activity opportunities • Mothers in developing cultures • Stimulate infants’ motor skills more than mothers in more advanced cultures. • Why? 11

How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Milestones for large muscle activities • Development of posture • Learning to walk; locomotion, balance, & practice (crawling to walking) • Adapting to slopes • 1st yr. milestones: walks easily • Development in 2nd yr. • Skilled & mobile: pull toys, climb stairs • Natural exercise: walk quickly, run stiffly 12

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Scales reliable? • Cross cultural reliability? • Only good for Western cultures? • Does environment play a role? 13

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Cultures may promote earlier walking by: • Massaging legs • Stretching legs • Motor exercises 14

CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN GUIDING INFANTS’ MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Infants worldwide reach motor milestones within close age range. • Variations not large • Milestones reached within normal age ranges • Algonquin of Canada • Cradle boards • Jamaica • Baby massages and limb stretching 15

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Most noticeable change during first 5 years • Scooting • Crawling (6-10 mo.'s) • Walking (12 mo.’s) • School age • Preform same movements as adults • Lacking strength & skill • T-Ball • Bowling ramps 16

What Changes Take Place in Body Growth, Brain, and Motor Development? GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Middle/late childhood: • Smoother movement • Better coordination • Mastered skills, feel pleasure 17

FINE MOTOR SKILLS 18

How Do Infants Develop Motor Skills? FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Finely tuned (coordinated) movements • Birth grasp: Palmer • Palmar • End of 1st year • Pincer Pincer • Wrists & hands turn & rotate more • Experience & exercise have impact 19

BLUEBERRY PANCAKE AND PINCER GRASP 20

21

FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Age 7 • Hands used more as ‘tools,’ • Age 8-10 • More independent with hands • Fine motor skills develop • Age 10-12 (end of elementary school) • Manipulative skills like adults 22

FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Accidents • Gross motor skills • Development of mobility • Fine motor skills • Pick up small objects • May lead to accidents. • Such as? • What precautions should parents take? 23

SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 24

SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Boys better gross motor skills • Speed • Strength • At 3 yrs. average boy • Jumps higher • Runs faster • At 3 yrs. average girl • Better balancing skills • Gymnastics 25

SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Boys more active since birth • Accelerates brain growth of motor neurons • Needed for: • Strength • Speed • Boys also conditioned to be active 26

SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Girls • Within 24 hours after birth • Adults use softer language • Mothers do more: • Cuddling • Emotionally expressive • Smile • Talk • Responsive to needs 27

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL 28

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL • Preschool • Most active time period in our lives • Should be allowed plenty of physical activity • Should a 3 yr. old be expected to sit still at dinner? • Elementary • Physical activity contributes to: • Overall attention • Greater cognitive development • Unstructured play best 29

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL • Middle school • Decline in physical activity • Nature: • Maturation • Nurture • Parents activity level • High school • Organized sports 30

What Are Central Issues in Children’s Health? EXERCISE AND SPORTS • Exercise • Children not exercising enough • Less P.E. programs/involvement in school • TV & video games promote sedentary lifestyles • High-intensity resistance exercise • Decreases body fat • Lessens overweight risks • Increases muscle strength • Linked to important cognitive activity • Parental encouragement a must 31

What Are Central Issues in Children’s Health? EXERCISE & SPORTS • Sports: • Involvement increasing every year • Positive consequences • Healthy exercise • Opportunities to learn • Raises self-esteem • Good peer relationships 32

EXERCISE & SPORTS • Problems with kids in organized sports? 33

EXERCISE & SPORTS • Negative consequences • Pressure to win/achieve • Parents • Teammates • Coaches • Self • Physical injuries • Academic work falters • Too competitive • Unrealistic expectations for athletic success 34

KIDS & SPORTS HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=U1_CKOBVACI 35

PARENTS’ SPORTS GUIDE FOR CHILDREN Pros – Exercise – Opportunities to learn how to compete – Self-esteem – Setting for developing peer relations and friendships Cons – Pressure to achieve, high stress created – Physical injuries – Distraction from academic work – Exploitation – Wrong values taught; win-at-all-costs 36

PHYSICAL DISABILITIES 37

AGES 6 - 11

PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • 1.3 % Physical handicap involving movement • Vision • What signs should parents look for? • Hearing • May have difficulties with abstract thought, solving math problems, understanding concepts • Due to how they process language 39

PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Speech • Adults should understand • 50% of what 2 yr. olds say • 75% of what 3 yr. olds say • 100% of what 4 yr. olds say 40

PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Speech • Problems pronouncing sounds correctly • Difficulty with pronouncing “s”, “r” • Stuttering • Common 2-5 year olds • Brain is processing faster than they can get the words out • Usually goes away within a few months 41

PHYSICAL DISABILITIES • Stuttering Cont. • If persistent: • Evaluation • Parents • Patient • DO NOT bring it to their attention • Psychological? • No • Stuttering can cause psychological problems 42

BOWEL & BLADDER CONTROL 43

BOWEL & BLADDER CONTROL • Toilet training • Nature & nurture • Body ready between 18 – 30 mo.'s. • Stay dry for at least 2 hrs. a day • Brazelton’s approach • Shaping • Steps? 44

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