Published on December 21, 2013
CHICAGO STYLE ARCHITECTURE How it became the nations architectural image
THE GREAT CITY OF CHICAGO Before 1871 Its architecture strongly resembled the “European Style”. There wasn’t really a “ American Style” of architecture.
THE GREAT CHICAGO FIRE OCTOBER 8-10 1871 Destroying 18,000 buildings , killing nearly 300 people, and leaving 100,000 homeless.
DAMAGE The "Burnt District," nearly four miles long and almost a mile wide, included most of the central business district and many residential areas
CHICAGO RISES FROM THE ASHES Reconstruction began almost instantly after the fire. Giving the city a chance to start again. Between 1872 and 1879 more than ten thousand construction permits were issued. With reconstruction came the need for architects, and many responded.
CHICAGO SCHOOL 1875-1910 response to the . Chicago fire. The school focused on mainly commercial buildings Used modern technology to replace load-bearing walls with steal frame construction Also known for the modern skyscraper, as well as the Chicago window Concepts regarding light and space, as well as emphasis on height . “ Form Follows Function”
THE CHICAGO SCHOOL ARCHITECTS William Le Baron Jenney Louis Sullivan Dankmar Adler Frank Lloyd Wright John Wellborn Root Daniel Hudson Burnham
NEW TECHNOLOGY Steal Frame Large plate glass Tube System Terracotta Elevators
CHICAGO ARCHITECTURE Italianate—also very ornamental in design; notice arched doors and windows Beaux-Arts—a highly decorative style that copied the classical architecture of the Greeks and Romans Romanesque design—a style involving massive walls and arched doors and windows, Art Deco—marked by unbroken vertical lines and other geometric features, popular in the 1930s
ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does this Radical Architecture break away from European traditions and create a “Modern Style” that is uniquely American?
GUIDING QUESTIONS Throughout the presentation ask yourself why architecture is more than just buildings? THINK DEEP Try to witness how every part of a building serves its overall purpose, and how the buildings truly represent the architects that created them? How would changing the architecture of a city also change the society in the process?
LOUIS SULLIVAN Showed nature through architecture The father of the skyscraper Form Follows Function
ADLER AND SULLIVAN BUILDINGS Auditorium Building (188 1890) Jewelers building 1881 Carson, Pirie, Scott and Co 1898 James Charnley House 1892
FRANK LLOYD original UNIQUE Overall Emotion Prairie Style Purpose Details
PRAIRIE STYLE Usonian homes Natural cooling and natural light windows Strong visual connection between the outside and the inside. Flat roofs, solar heating, and floor heating
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL Stripped away all exterior ornamentation. More window then wall Originated in Germany in 1930s. In Chicago it went from the 1940s-1970s Known also as the Second Chicago School Concept: Less is moreLudwig Mies van der Rohe
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL ARCHITECTS Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Illinois Institute of technology) Fazlur Klan (engineer, System of framed tubes)
SYSTEM OF FRAMED TUBES John Hancock Prairie Style 1969 DeWitt Chestnut Apartment Building 1963
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