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Published on November 29, 2007

Author: Sophia

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  IP Technology for Wireless Networks, University View Ahmed Helmy, Assistant Prof. Electrical Engineering Dept. University of Southern California (helmy@usc.edu) http://ceng.usc.edu/~helmy Slide2:  Integrating Ad-Hoc Networks into the Internet (Vision and Challenges) - The integrated architecture between the wired Internet and ad hoc mobile networks enables ubiquitous audio and group communication between users with different mobility degrees, computing and communication capabilities and different forms of network connectivity. - Architectural components include efficient support for multicast and audio in wired and ad hoc networks, as well as interoperability gateways. Issues in the Integrated Design:  Issues in the Integrated Design Objective: to provide efficient audio/real-time group communication in integrated ad-hoc Internet environment Main components: Efficient mobility support for audio/real-time apps Multicast support in ad-hoc networks Power-aware protocols for efficient ad-hoc networks Interoperability architecture based on gateway clusters Multicast-based Architecture for Efficient IP Mobility Support:  Multicast-based Architecture for Efficient IP Mobility Support Outline:  Outline Problem Statement Mobile IP Overview and Shortcomings Multicast and IP-Mobility Suggested Paradigm Shift: Multicast-based Mobility Protocol Mechanisms Performance Analysis Topology Models Movement Models Results Future Work Problem Statement:  Problem Statement Providing efficient IP mobility support, especially for audio applications Audio applications are least tolerant to jitter and so are very sensitive to handoff delays Efficiency is measured in terms of handoff smoothness routing efficiency (end-to-end delays) network overhead (bandwidth consumed and links traversed) Mobile IP:  Mobile IP Each mobile node has a home network, home address and home agent Home Agent (HA) Home Network Mobile Node Correspondent Node Slide8:  Home Agent Home Network Correspondent Node Foreign Agent (FA) Foreign Network Mobile Node When mobile node (MN) moves to a foreign network it obtains a care-of-address (COA) from the foreign agent (FA) that registers it with the home agent (HA) COA is used by HA to tunnel packets to MN Mobile IP - Registration Slide9:  Home Agent (HA) Correspondent Node (CN) Mobile Node (MN) Packets to MN are picked up by the HA and tunneled to MN Packets sent by MN go directly to CN Mobile IP - Triangle Routing Related work on Mobile IPv6:  Related work on Mobile IPv6 Correspondent Node Foreign Agent 2 (FA2) With every move, the mobile node (MN) obtains a care-of-address (COA) and sends a binding update to the HA and the CN Foreign Agent 1 (FA1) Mobile Node Home Agent (HA) Home Network Slide11:  MIP.v6 (router-assisted handoff): Previous Location Approach Correspondent Node Foreign Agent 2 (FA2) With every move, the mobile node (MN) obtains a care-of-address (COA) and sends a binding update to the previous location/FA Foreign Agent 1 (FA1) Mobile Node Home Agent (HA) Home Network Multicast and IP-Mobility:  Multicast and IP-Mobility Common issues in both paradigms Location independent communication/addressing Location discovery/management Packet forwarding Location Independent Addressing:  Location Independent Addressing IP-Multicast Single ‘logical’ multicast group D-class address Senders do not know where receivers are Receivers do not know where senders are Mobile-IP Permanent home address Temp care-of-address(es) Address mapping done through the home agent Location Management:  Location Management IP-Multicast Membership location Done thru IGMP & routing Meet through the multicast tree Mobile-IP Mobile node location Done thru home agent Meet thru registration of new address Packet Forwarding:  Packet Forwarding IP-Multicast Multicast forwarding Tunnel through the multicast tree (e.g., RP) Mobile-IP Unicast forwarding Tunnel through home agent Suggested Paradigm Shift: Multicast for Mobility:  Suggested Paradigm Shift: Multicast for Mobility Instead of obtaining a new COA and registering with the new foreign agent (and subsequently with the home agent) and de-registering the old address Use the same logical multicast group address and join/leave the group as you move Slide17:  (a) All locations visited by the mobile are part of the distribution tree (at some point) (b) When a mobile moves to a certain location, only that location becomes part of the tree (shown by bold lines) - When the mobile moves to a new location, as in (c) and (d) the distribution tree changes to deliver packets to the new location. Multicast-based Mobility (M&M): Architectural Concept Slide18:  Distribution tree dynamics while roaming CN CN: Correspondent node (sender) Wireless link Mobile Node Slide19:  Join/Prune dynamics to modify distribution CN CN: Correspondent node (sender) Wireless link Mobile Node Slide20:  Smooth Hand-off BS1 BS2 Potential Advantages:  Potential Advantages Avoiding ‘triangle routing’ problem Avoiding the need for home/foreign agents to continuously tunnel packets to the MN Smooth hand-off using standard join/prune Using shortest path (source-specific trees) Main Protocol Mechanisms:  Main Protocol Mechanisms Mobile Node (MN) Join/Leave Movement Detection Binding Updates Care-of-address Decapsulation (during start-up phase) Base Station (BS) or first hop router Join/Leave Caching and forwarding Sending beacons Election (for robustness) Main Protocol Mechanisms (contd.):  Main Protocol Mechanisms (contd.) Correspondent Node (CN) Binding update reception Home Agent (HA) Encapsulation (during start-up phase) Election (for robustness) Obtaining MN’s multicast address:  Obtaining MN’s multicast address A corresponding node (CN) obtains the multicast address of the MN through: DNS lookup similar to getting the unicast (home) address of the MN requires update of DNS after allocation of multicast addresses to MNs Startup phase CN sends packets to home address Home agent encapsulates packets in multicast packets sent to the MN MN decapsulates these packets and sends a binding update to the CN with its multicast address Startup scenario:  Startup scenario Correspondent Node On first move, the mobile node (MN) sends a binding update to the CN Mobile Node Home Agent (HA) Home Network Performance Evaluation: Route-based Analysis:  Performance Evaluation: Route-based Analysis Performance metrics Network overhead End-to-end delay Handoff delay The model Topology model Movement model Multicast simulation (ns using centralized PIM-SM) Topology Models:  Topology Models Synthesized topologies random, transit-stub using GT-ITM and Tiers topology generators real topologies: 2 Mbone, AS, ARPA maps 21 topologies with 47-5000 nodes, with various avg. degrees Slide28:  100 node transit-stub topology (ts100) Slide29:  Map of the MBone Movement Models:  Movement Models If MN is visiting node n, then node n+1 is chosen according to one of the following movement patterns Random Neighbor: next node to visit is randomly picked from nodes directly-connected to the currently visited node Cluster: next node is randomly picked from one of 6 nodes likely to fall within the same cluster as the current node For each movement pattern 100 movement steps in each simulation run, and 10 runs with random selection of HA and CN Slide31:  A cluster of cells (in bold) is replicated over the coverage area. Cluster size is 7. When moving, MN in cell ‘A’ may visit one of 6 cells within the same cluster Cluster movement Patterns for ts100 Movement Models (contd.) Slide32:  - Network overhead is proportional to total number of links traversed - for Mobile IP = (A + B), for M&M =  C - we measure ‘(A + B) /  C’ for all simulation runs - End-to-end delay is proportional to number of links traversed in each simulation run - we define the ratio ‘r’= (A+B)/C Performance Metrics Slide33:  As the MN moves from node 1 to 2, the number of added links ‘L’ is 3 and the number of links to previous location ‘P’ (shown in dashed lines) is 2. As it moves from 2 to 3 there are no added links (L=0), and P is 2. Performance Metrics (contd.) Slide34:  Number of added links. Arrows point to the move with maximum added links (from node 66 to node 72) Cluster Movement Example Slide35:  100 node transit-stub topology (ts100) Slide36:  Total links traversed. (A + B) /  C = 1.8 Overall Network Overhead Slide37:  Ratio ‘r = (A+B)/C’. Average ‘r = 2.11’. End-to-end Delay Handoff Latency:  Handoff Latency M&M: proportional To ‘L’ Mobile IP proportional B MIPv6 proportional C Previous location proportional P Define handoff latency ratios: ‘B/L’, ‘C/L’ and ‘P/L’ Slide39:  Added links ‘L’. Average L = 2.5 Links. Handoff Latency for M&M Slide40:  Average B/L, C/L and P/L ratios Handoff Latency Ratios Slide41:  Summary of Handoff Latency Results Conclusion:  Conclusion M&M is quite simpler than Mobile IP (MIP) protocols. It re-uses many existing multicast mechanisms M&M performs better than MIP, even MIP with route optimizations and smooth-handoff options Extensive simulations show that on average, compared to MIP M&M incurs ~1/2 network overhead M&M incurs 1/2 end-to-end delay M&M incurs less than 1/2 handoff delay Issues and Future Work:  Issues and Future Work Multicast address allocation Security State overhead of the multicast tree Applicability requires ubiquitous multicast More detailed packet-level analysis (in progress) Slide44:  Thank You ! Ahmed Helmy helmy@ceng.usc.edu ceng.usc.edu/~helmy

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