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Published on March 12, 2008

Author: Isab

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English Language Teaching Workshop for Fukien Secondary School Teachers by Dr Phyllis Chew Nanyang Technological University, Singapore phyllis.chew@nie.edu.sg http://phyllischew.myplace.nie.edu.sg/ 14 April 2007 :  English Language Teaching Workshop for Fukien Secondary School Teachers by Dr Phyllis Chew Nanyang Technological University, Singapore phyllis.chew@nie.edu.sg http://phyllischew.myplace.nie.edu.sg/ 14 April 2007 PROGRAMME 1.Oral skills using stories & genres 2. extensive reading strategies :  PROGRAMME 1.Oral skills using stories & genres 2. extensive reading strategies Emerging Lingua Francas:  Emerging Lingua Francas Emerging lingua francas: cantonese vs. Mandarin HK vs. Singapore :  Emerging lingua francas: cantonese vs. Mandarin HK vs. Singapore Liminal Period in Hong Kong:  Liminal Period in Hong Kong The medium of instruction controversy Linguistic Aim for all students trilingual and biliterate The HK Certificate of Education exam :  The HK Certificate of Education exam Reading 20% Writing 20% Listenig 30% Speaking 15% School Based Assessment 15% Slide7:  ORAL SKILLS OR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IS NOW CRUCIAL AND MORE THAN 50% OF THE MARKS What is storytelling?:  What is storytelling? An ancient tradition A modern communication tool Our most natural form of communication A time-tested way of bonding with students Language and literacy:  Language and literacy Listening skills Comprehension Vocabulary speech SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL , CUTLURAL:  SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL , CUTLURAL Empathy- universal human traits Inspiration Survival of community through shared experiences Passing down of values, traditions and messages in a non-didactic way. Group work:  Group work Say what your name means to each other. Give us the background to your name. STORYTELLERS::  STORYTELLERS: Use their own words Make eye contact with the audience Change the delivery of the story according to how the audience reacts Slide14:  Storytelling is about connecting with the audience Intellectual development:  Intellectual development Active use of the brain Problem solving Perspective taking UNDERSTANDING SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:  UNDERSTANDING SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN PERSPECTIVE TAKING MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND REASONING AFFECTS ATTITUDES, VALUES AND BEHAVIOUR Teaching perspective:  Teaching perspective HE HAS ONLY 0 LEVELS, 31 SHOPS AND $50 MILLIION A YEAR BUSINESS:  HE HAS ONLY 0 LEVELS, 31 SHOPS AND $50 MILLIION A YEAR BUSINESS Maradona – street kid to powerful footballer :  Maradona – street kid to powerful footballer Many kinds of stories:  Many kinds of stories Anecdotes Literary stories Historical stories Folktales Reality stories Riddles, jokes, proverbs Family stories etc Memory triggers:  Memory triggers Accidents, celebrations, friendship, school stories, being lost, first times, embarrassing times, family sayings, wise ones. Trips, humor, victories, sports, tests, tricks, death, pets, festivals Migration, birth/adoption, tales of hurt, fights, adventure, tales of adversity, heroes/role models, neighbors, survival Group work:  Group work Look at the small piece of paper. Tell the story to each other based on the 3 words in your paper. *Why tell stories?:  *Why tell stories? A natural way to transmit ideas Stories give students an eperience o the world Stories creates atmosphere of caring and enhances relationship Students who are told a lot of stories will start to tell stories themselves – hence building their self-confidence and self-esteem Listening to stories improves imagination and helps in forming images for later writing It improves listening skills. It develops vocabulary and beauty of the language It sparks interest in reading *New book on stories in the classroom:  *New book on stories in the classroom Ruth Wajnryb, Stories. Narrative activities in the language classroom. Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2004. *stories on the web:  *stories on the web www.healingstory.org/crisis/crisis http://www.dancingponyproductons.com/welcome.html http://hazel.forest.net/whootie/default/html www.wisdomtales.com www.storyarts.org www.aaronshep.com www.cathyspagnoli.com etc Storytelling along the Singapore river:  Storytelling along the Singapore river Storytelling in Singapore EVERYONE CAN TELL A STORY!:  EVERYONE CAN TELL A STORY! GAME TIME To tell a story you need::  To tell a story you need: A thoughtfully chosen story A genuine desire to communicate A simple, clear, natural manner of speaking Choose a story that :  Choose a story that You really like Has only a few characters Has a simple plot Learning a story:  Learning a story Don’t memorize the story word for word Its ok to memorize words or phrases that you like, and the beginning and end of the story Learn the main events of the story, not the words Learning the stucture of a story:  Learning the stucture of a story Read Listen Draw Learning the structure :  Learning the structure Write Outline cobra and python:  Outline cobra and python Orientation Rainy day, met in cave Fell in love – why – describe physical beauty of cobra and phyton Problem – why, their parent’s obejctions Resolution – meet where, when What happen at meeting Is there a moral See Handout: using your voice effectively:  See Handout: using your voice effectively Pitch changes Pace Pause Power tone Key words:  Key words Characters Settings Objects Emotions themes Story in a sentence:  Story in a sentence Write a summary of the story in one sentence Think in terms of newspaper headlines:  Think in terms of newspaper headlines YOUNG BLOND, STEALS PORRIDGE VANDALISES BEARS COTTAGE BUT EVADES CAPTURE BY QUICKY GETAWAY THROUGH UPSTAIRS WINDOW After the story:  After the story Wait – don’t plunge into the discussion Allow the story to ‘settle” in the listerner’s minds by doing quieter reflective activities first These activities could include::  These activities could include: Visualizing some aspect of the story Drawing the part of the story that interested them most Writing their responses to the story Group work:  Group work Draw a picture of ONE of the following: Your very first Home, Accident Test Pet Friendship Death Migration Explain the drawing to your group. Look at handout:  Look at handout Some suggestions for further activities in the classroom (for secondary schools & above) Slide45:  TEACHING LANGUAGE THROUGH GENRES STORIES ARE NARRATIVES:  STORIES ARE NARRATIVES Orientation/setting Complication/problem Resolution Coda Slide47:  STORY MAP Draws attention to text structure and sequence Setting: Characters: 3 little pigs, wolf, reporters, police Place: In the countryside, farmland Problem; The wolf needed to borrow a cup of sugar Goal: To bake a birthday cake Event 1 The wolf sneezed outside 1st pigs door and the house of straw accidentally fell down. The wolf ate the pig. Event 2 The 2nd pig wouldn’t open the door - busy shaving. The wolf sneezed outside the door, the house of sticks fell down. The wolf ate the pig. Event 3 The 3rd pig wouldn’t let the wolf in. Instead, he insulted the wolf. The wolf tried to break the down the door. Event 4 The police arrived. Resolution: The wolf ended up in prison. Wolf claims he was framed. Slide48:  STORY LADDER Draws attention to text structure and sequence THE WORLD OF MULTIMODALITY:  THE WORLD OF MULTIMODALITY When you want to remember something, write it down:  When you want to remember something, write it down What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember What I do, I understand Confucius The genre of contrasts in diagram form:  The genre of contrasts in diagram form Slide54:  Venn Diagram for group analysis of Robinson Crusoe Slide55:  The pigs leave home to build their own homes. Pig 1- The wolf goes to the pig’s home and asks to be let in. The pig doesn’t let the wolf in so he huffs and puffs and blows the house down. The pig runs away Pig 2- The wolf goes to the pig’s home and asks to be let in. The pig doesn’t let him in so he huffs and puffs and blows the pig’s house down. The 2 pigs runoff to the 3rd pig’s house. Pig 3- The wolf asks to come in but noone answers. The pigs put a big pot of water on the fire under the chimney. The wolf climbs down the chimney and into the boiling pot of water The wolf goes to borrow a cup of sugar. The wolf has a bad cold. Pig 1- The wolf goes to the pig’s home and knocks on the door. The door falls down. The wolf goes in and the straw makes him sneeze. The house falls down. The wolf eats the pig.. Pig 2- The wolf rings the doorbell. 2nd pig doesn’t let him in. He is busy shaving. The wolf sneezed and the house fell down. The wolf ate the pig. Pig 3- The wolf goes to the pig’s house and knocks on the door. The pig wouldn’t let him in but instead insulted the wolf’s granny. The wolf became so angry that he tried to break down the door. The police came for the wolf. Reporters jazzed up the story. The wolf ended up in prison. 3 pigs Wolf Houses of straw, sticks, and bricks VENN DIAGRAM: COMPARE AND CONTRAST The three little pigs/ The true story of the three little pigs Slide56:  Stone Fox - Compare/Contrast Book/Movie Slide57:  H-Map (compare/contrast map Cold air/ warm air sudden change more fast very windy air rises thunderstorms rain storms air cools Warm, cold air weather change some precipitation some wind Warm air/ cold air slow change move slowly light wind air 35 showers air warm Cold Front Both Warm Front Why a genre approach? . :  Why a genre approach? . Narrative is the easiest but that’s only a portion of what is used in life and in the exams. Asian students generlaly prefer modelling. Slide60:  The genre approach is linked closely to: The 20% factor 80% of the key information is found in 20% of the materials:  80% of the key information is found in 20% of the materials Slide62:  80% of good writing comes from understanding your audience and target objectives Slide63:  A 20% increase in paying attention to listening cues is equivalent to an 80% edge. what are the main types of texts?:  what are the main types of texts? NARRATIVE:  NARRATIVE Mystery Science fiction Fantasy Adventure Fairy tales Myths and legends PROCEDURAL:  PROCEDURAL DIRECTORIES FORMS LISTS INSTRUCTIONS Problems Some diaries *PROCEDURAL:  *PROCEDURAL *RECEIPES. PERSONAL:  PERSONAL recount Informal notes for oneself Stream of consciousness writing Learning logs Personal diaries *PERSONAL:  *PERSONAL recount EXPOSITORY:  EXPOSITORY Encyclopedias Atlases Reference books Non-fiction reports *expository:  *expository Reports *Expository :  *Expository Exposition/argumentative ARTISTIC:  ARTISTIC Plays Haikus Odes Ballads Limericks sonnets The genre approach is the most time saving and focussed strategy for the examination:  The genre approach is the most time saving and focussed strategy for the examination EXTENSIVE READING BY Dr Phyllis Chew:  EXTENSIVE READING BY Dr Phyllis Chew Why teach reading of books?:  Why teach reading of books? Students discover how texts work (concepts of print) They know what constitutes a good book They understand how language can be used in different ways They feel what it is to be a reader, not just be able to read WHAT IS READING? :  WHAT IS READING? Complete this sentence : “Reading is ………” Slide78:  “It is a number of interactive processes that allow the reader to construct or build knowledge” (Julian Bamford and Richard Day, 2004. Extensive Reading in the Second Langauge Classroom) WHAT EXTENSIVE READING IS NOT::  WHAT EXTENSIVE READING IS NOT: It is not translation It is not reading aloud It is not answering comprehension questions Reading Comprehension vs. Extensive Reading:  Reading Comprehension vs. Extensive Reading Short difficult text Large no of comprehension questions Analyze the text in terms of language features Some translation activities based on the text. Research shows that students learn reading strategies if they already have some amount of intermediate skills. Free downloads:  Free downloads http://www.extensivereading.net/ http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Extensive reading/ http://www.erfoundation.org http://www.penguinreaders.com (Click on Teacher’s Guides” in the bottom, right corner) How do we learn to read? :  How do we learn to read? We learn to read by reading (there is no other way) The more students read, the better readers they become FLUENT READING NEEDS::  FLUENT READING NEEDS: A large sight vocabulary (quickly, automatically and fast) a large general vocabulary (ie you just needs to pause briefly if you don’t know the meaning of the word) How to acquire fluency in reading?:  How to acquire fluency in reading? By reading “i minus 1” Where “1” is the current level of acquisition. This is the only way to acquire a large sight vocabulary. “easy is good” “choice should be interesting POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF READING INSTRUCTION :  POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF READING INSTRUCTION Fluent Skilled, strategic reader Lifelong reader Joyful readers Lifelong readers Why should reading be joyful?:  Why should reading be joyful? Think about teaching someone to swim For beginning student, strategies don’t work so well; but joy does. *According to Prowse, Extensive Reading is::  *According to Prowse, Extensive Reading is: Easy Interesting Self-selection OUTCOMES:  OUTCOMES OUTCOMES:  OUTCOMES Implication for FL Reading:  Implication for FL Reading (Richard Day “Reading Dependence Hypothesis: “How EFL learners end up as readers depend on the path they take.” ASK: Where do you want your readers to end up? Be aware of the outcome before you decide. Extensive reading is vital if there is a insufficient classroom contact time:  Extensive reading is vital if there is a insufficient classroom contact time The experts…..:  “first rate literature makes one say: “Until now, I never knew how I felt. Thanks to this experience, I shall never feel the same way again.” W.H. Auden The experts….. Ask students what they like? :  Ask students what they like? What is the name of your favourite book? Why do you like it? How many books do you own? Where do you keep them? What are the names of some of these books? If you could change places with someone, who would it be? What do you like best about reading? What is your favourite television show? Why do you like it? What is your hobby? Do you collect anything? If so, what? How do you feel about reading for fun? Do you own a library card? If you were to write your own book, what would it be about? Why? What games or sports do you like? What is the next book you plan to read? Betty Coody, pp 10-11 Slide95:  Dole, Brown and Trathern (1996) found that students’ attitude towards reading makes a big difference – they claim that materials and attitudes are the most important variables in the decision to read. “Reading is Magic” What do experts say?:  "stories leave an indelible impression, and their author always has a niche in the temple of memory from which the image is never cast out..."  Howard Pyle "A book is a garden, an orchard, a storehouse, a party, a company by the way, a counselor, a multitude of counselors."  Henry Ward Beecher “Reading is Magic” What do experts say? Creating classroom experiences that foster an enjoyment of literature:  Creating classroom experiences that foster an enjoyment of literature Reader Response:  Reader Response “When a reader reads the print, something happens within the reader” (Rosenblatt, 1998) Reading is a lived through experience. It involves feelings, images and thoughts that are brought to mind while we read. Readers respond to those feelings during and after reading. Slide100:  A Lesson from Baghdad by Abdul Baha Teachers need to::  Teachers need to: Help students express their responses to literature Provide activities that deepen and enrich these responses and understandings Response Journal Guide:  Response Journal Guide Fiction I don’t understand when… This makes me think of… This reminds me of… This is like… This makes me feel… I can picture…. I like the part… I didn’t like the part… The part I remember most is…. Other Response Activities:  Other Response Activities Write a letter from Magpie to Dog explaining why she left him Sketch the part of the story you liked the most/least Write a poem entitled “FOX”, based on the character in this story The Importance of Responding to reading literature:  The Importance of Responding to reading literature Students take ownership of the reading process They understand that there is no “right” answer when talking about literature They become more critical in their thinking about texts They become more creative in their writing Group Work:  Group Work You will be given a book to read together as a group. What type of fiction is it? Evaluate the quality of your text using the following questions as a guide: Slide106:  Is the book a good story? Is there action? Is the plot original and believable? Do the characters grow and change in the story? Does the author avoid stereotyping? How does the setting affect the action, characters, or theme? Does the story move beyond the setting and have universal implications? Is the theme worthwhile? Is the style of writing and use of language appropriate? Does the book exemplify the characteristics of a genre? (Adapted from Sutherland & Arbuthnot, 1996) Slide107:  A reading programme isn’t balanced if it doesn’t have non-fiction Slide108:  Non-fiction links readers to the unlimited possibilities of the world around them…….readers will learn that truth really can be stranger, and more exciting, than fiction. Kimberley Minafo Students love to discover new things Slide109:  The research shows: Students who read non-fiction are better able to write non-fiction Reader Response Activities:  Reader Response Activities NON-FICTION Response Journal Guide:  Response Journal Guide Non-Fiction What was the most interesting or exciting word/part of the book? What idea were you most interested in? Describe your feelings towards this idea? Why do you feel this way? Can you make any connections between your own life and the ideas you read about? What places in the book made you think of something you have experienced or seen before or know about? Why? Group Work:  Group Work Browse through a selection of non-fiction books for learners of English From your observations what constitutes good non-fiction for students? List some possible criteria Did You Have…..?:  A catchy or interesting title An attractive front cover Accurate facts Good organization Exciting language Clear explanations which don’t simplify the facts Authentic photos/useful diagrams Photos/diagrams which support the written text Movement from simple to difficult concepts Avoidance of stereotypes Did You Have…..? *see handouts on Reader Response activities:  *see handouts on Reader Response activities Some suggestions by Marc Helgresen Responses to literature broadsheet Is extensive reading a part of your school’s experience?:  Is extensive reading a part of your school’s experience? What and where do children read? Is the library accessible to students? Did the classroom have its own collection of books? Who chooses the books for students? Do you give time for response activities about the books and stories that you were reading?

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