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chemostat

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Information about chemostat
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Published on February 25, 2008

Author: Rina

Source: authorstream.com

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Homework 4, Problem 3 The Allee Effect:  Homework 4, Problem 3 The Allee Effect Homework 4, Problem 4a The Ricker Model:  Homework 4, Problem 4a The Ricker Model Homework 4, Problem 4a The Beverton-Holt Model:  Homework 4, Problem 4a The Beverton-Holt Model The Chemostat :  The Chemostat Group Model Building Exercise The Chemostat:  The Chemostat An apparatus for the continuous culture of bacterial populations in a steady state. Nutrients are supplied continuously to the culture vessel. The cells in the vessel grow continuously on these nutrients. Residual nutrients and cells are removed from the vessel at the same rate by an overflow, thus maintaining the culture at a constant volume. The Chemostat:  The Chemostat Your Task:  Your Task Derive a mathematical model of bacteria growth in a chemostat Use the model to design the system so that The flow rate will not be so great as to wash out the entire culture The nutrient replenishment is sufficiently rapid so the culture is able to grow normally Building The Model:  Building The Model Variables Nutrient Concentration C(t) mass/vol in growth chamber Bacteria Density N(t) #/vol in growth chamber Building The Model:  Building The Model Parameters Stock Nutrient C0 mass/vol Concentration Volume of growth V vol. Chamber Inflow/Outflow Rate F vol/time Bacteria growth rate k 1/time Yield constant 1/ #/mass Assumptions:  Assumptions Growth chamber is well mixed No spatial variations There is a single, growth limiting nutrient Bacteria growth rate depend on nutrient availability, that is k = k(C) Nutrient depletion occurs continuously as result of reproduction The Model:  The Model reproduction outflow consumption outflow inflow What Should k(C) Be?:  What Should k(C) Be? Last time, when deriving logistic growth, we assumed k(C) = C Bacteria growth increases linearly with nutrient concentration Jacques Monod found that following function provided the best fit to data for bacteria feeding on a single nutrient: Monod Function The Monod Function:  The Monod Function This growth function is monotonically increasing with limit r as C → infinity. The parameter r is the maximum growth rate The parameter a is called that half-saturation constant C r/2 r a Sample Parameter Values:  Sample Parameter Values For E.coli grown on glucose at 30 degrees Celsius r = 1.35 per hour a = 0.004 g/liter 1/ = 0.23 If glucose is plentiful so that the specific growth rate is maintained at r = 1.35, the model predicts a doubling time of approximately half and hour. Bacteria Growth Without Maintenance:  Bacteria Growth Without Maintenance The steady state for the bacteria depends on the initial conditions. Back to the Chemostat:  Back to the Chemostat d = F/V is the dilution rate (1/time) If the chemostat were filled it would take 1/d hours to empty it. For this reason, 1/d is the mean residence time of bacteria cells in the chemostat Nondimensionalize:  Nondimensionalize Choose Arbitrary Scales: Substitute in Model: Nondimensionalize:  Nondimensionalize Simplify Choices Nondimensionalize:  Nondimensionalize Rename Only 2 parameter groupings govern the dynamics Analysis of The Model:  Analysis of The Model Steady States Analysis of The Model:  Analysis of The Model Steady States Exists iff Exists iff Stability :  Stability Let Compute Let Stability of Continuous Models:  Stability of Continuous Models In a continuous model, a steady state will be stable provided that eigenvalues are both negative (if real) or have negative real part (if complex). As with discrete models complex eigenvalues are associated with oscillatory solutions. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions:  Necessary and Sufficient Conditions For a system of two equations, a steady state will be stable if: Stability of Chemostat:  Stability of Chemostat For n1 = 0, c1 = a2 Stability of Chemostat:  Stability of Chemostat For n1 = 0, c1 = a2  > 0 if: So the elimination state is stable whenever the nontrivial steady state does not exist.  < 0 if  > 0 ? ? Stability of the Chemostat:  Stability of the Chemostat For n2, c2 Therefore the nontrivial steady state is stable whenever it exists. Stability of the Chemostat:  Stability of the Chemostat Check for oscillations: Therefore no oscillations are possible. Is Conclusions:  Conclusions It is always possible to design the chemostat so that at steady state there will be bacteria populating the growth chamber. For the nontrivial steady state to exist we must have: Interpretation:  Interpretation What do these results mean in term of the original parameters? That is what should the flow rate, the volume, and the stock nutrient concentration be in order to ensure continuous culture? This is part of HW 5 Phase Portraits:  Phase Portraits A graphical picture that summaries the behavior of a system of two ODEs. Example Nullclines:  Nullclines Nullclines are curves of zero slope That is curves for which Therefore steady states are located at the intersection nullclines and x-Nullclines:  x-Nullclines On these lines, the slope (velocity) in the x-direction is zero The only movement can be in the y-direction (ie up or down) y-Nullclines:  y-Nullclines On these curves, the slope (velocity) in the y-direction is zero The only movement can be in the x-direction (ie left or right) Graph the Nullclines :  Graph the Nullclines Label the Steady States Mark the Direction of Motion x y 1 1 x-nullclines y-nullclines Direction of Motion On y = 0:  Direction of Motion On y = 0 On y = 0: So movement is in the negative y-direction (down) x y 1 1 Direction of Motion On x = 1 :  Direction of Motion On x = 1 On x = 1: So movement is down for y < 1 and up for y > 1 x y 1 1 Direction of Motion On x = 0 :  Direction of Motion On x = 0 On x = 0: So movement is in the negative x-direction (left) x y 1 1 Direction of Motion On y = 1:  Direction of Motion On y = 1 On y = 1: So movement is left for x < 1 and right for x > 1 x y 1 1 Fill in the Direction Field:  Fill in the Direction Field All trajectories move away from the non-trivial steady state, therefore x = 1, y = 1 is unstable. Some trajectories move towards the origin, but some move away; therefore x = 0, y=0 is unstable. Note that arrows change direction across a steady state. x y 1 1 Actual Phase Portrait:  Actual Phase Portrait Another Example:  Another Example Determine nullclines x-nullclines: On this curve, slope (velocity) in the x-direction is zero Trajectories can only move off of this curve in the y-direction (up or down) y-nullclines: On this curve, slope (velocity) in the x-direction is zero Trajectories can only move off of this curve in the y-direction (up or down) Graph the Nullclines:  Graph the Nullclines Plot nullclines, label steady states, mark direction of motion x y 1 1 x-nullclines y-nullclines Direction of Motion On y = x:  Direction of Motion On y = x On y = x: So movement is left if x < 1 and right if x > 1 x y 1 1 Direction of Motion On y = x2:  Direction of Motion On y = x2 On y = x2: So movement is up if x < 1 and down if x > 1 x y 1 1 Fill in the Direction Field:  Fill in the Direction Field Some trajectories move towards the nontrivial steady state, but others move away; therefore x = 1, y = 1 is unstable. Trajectories seem to move toward the origin, therefore the origin could be stable. Note that arrows change direction across a steady state. x y 1 1 Actual Phase Portrait:  Actual Phase Portrait Classifying Steady States:  Classifying Steady States Unstable Node (Source) Both eigenvalues are real and positive Saddle Point (unstable) Eigenvalues have opposite sign Classifying Steady States:  Classifying Steady States Unstable Spiral (Source) Complex eigenvalues with positive real part Neutral Center Complex eigenvalues with zero real part Classifying Steady States:  Classifying Steady States Stable Spiral (Sink) Complex eigenvalues with negative real part Stable Node (Sink) Eigenvalues are real and negative Summary:  Summary The local stability properties of steady states of a nonlinear system of two equations can be ascertained by determining b and g and noting the region of parameter space in which they lie. Global Behavior From Local Information:  Global Behavior From Local Information For systems of 2 equations, local stability properties of steady states can be used to determine global behavior. There are a limited number of ways that trajectories can flow in the phase plane (due to continuity) Properties of Trajectories in the Phase Plane:  Properties of Trajectories in the Phase Plane Solution curves can only intersect at steady states If a solution curve is a closed loop, it must enclose at least one steady state. That steady state cannot be a saddle point Asymptotic Behavior of Trajectories:  Asymptotic Behavior of Trajectories Trajectories in the phase plane can Approach a steady steady Approach infinity Approach a closed loop (a limit cycle) A trajectory itself may be a closed loop or else it may approach or recede from one Be a heteroclinic trajectory Connects two different steady states Be a homoclinic trajectory Returns to the the same steady state

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