Chemistry Unit 2 Part 1

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Information about Chemistry Unit 2 Part 1

Published on October 5, 2007

Author: shawnschlueter

Source: slideshare.net

Matter and Change Part 1 – Properties of Matter

TAKS student expectation Integrated Physics and Chemistry (8) Science Concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life . The student is expected to: (A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle; and Here’s what you have to do if you want to pass this part of the TAKS: Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.

Integrated Physics and Chemistry (8) Science Concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life . The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle; and

Here’s what you have to do if you want to pass this part of the TAKS:

Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.

Remember to duplicate Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Remember to duplicate

Characteristics of a substance can be classified as physical properties or chemical properties. Which of the following is a chemical property? A Boils at 56ºC B Tastes sour C Has a density of 2.9 g/cm3 D Reacts with acid to produce hydrogen gas Sample Question Source: Reviewing Chemistry TAKS.

Characteristics of a substance can be classified as physical properties or chemical properties. Which of the following is a chemical property?

A Boils at 56ºC

B Tastes sour

C Has a density of 2.9 g/cm3

D Reacts with acid to produce hydrogen gas

Properties and Changes in Matter Every substance has characteristic properties. Chemists use these properties to distinguish between substances and separate them.

Every substance has characteristic properties.

Chemists use these properties to distinguish between substances and separate them.

Extensive vs. Intensive Properties Properties are either extensive or intensive . Extensive Properties depend on amount of matter present volume, mass, and amount of energy in a substance Intensive Properties do not depend on amount of matter present melting point, density, ability to conduct electricity, and percent composition

Extensive Properties

depend on amount of matter present

volume, mass, and

amount of energy in a substance

Intensive Properties

do not depend on amount of matter present

melting point, density, ability to conduct electricity, and percent composition

Properties of One Penny Properties Metal Composed of 2.5% copper and 97.5% zinc Mass – 2.50 grams Volume – 0.442 mL Density – 5.66 g/mL

Properties

Metal

Composed of 2.5% copper and 97.5% zinc

Mass – 2.50 grams

Volume – 0.442 mL

Density – 5.66 g/mL

Properties of Many Pennies Properties Metal Composed of 2.5% copper and 97.5% zinc Mass – 2500 grams (1000 pennies x 2.5 g) Volume – 442 mL (1000 pennies x.442mL) Density – 5.66 g/mL One Thousand Pennies

Properties

Metal

Composed of 2.5% copper and 97.5% zinc

Mass – 2500 grams

(1000 pennies x 2.5 g)

Volume – 442 mL

(1000 pennies x.442mL)

Density – 5.66 g/mL

Extensive vs. Intensive Properties WHICH PROPERTIES REMAINED THE SAME? Metal Percent Composition Density The intensive properties remained the same because they do not depend on the amount of pennies present.

WHICH PROPERTIES REMAINED THE SAME?

Metal

Percent Composition

Density

The intensive properties remained the same because they do not depend on the amount of pennies present.

Extensive vs. Intensive Properties WHICH PROPERTIES CHANGED? Mass Volume The extensive properties changed because they do depend on the amount of pennies present.

WHICH PROPERTIES CHANGED?

Mass

Volume

The extensive properties changed because they do depend on the amount of pennies present.

Property Types There are 2 major categories that all properties of matter fall into Physical Chemical

There are 2 major categories that all properties of matter fall into

Physical Properties Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance. They can be observed by using the five senses.

Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance.

They can be observed by using the five senses.

Physical Properties Cross between a lab and a poodle Size of a lab With the curly hair of a poodle Can be black, yellow, brown, or white Tail of a lab What are the physical properties of a labradoodle?

Cross between a lab and a poodle

Size of a lab

With the curly hair of a poodle

Can be black, yellow, brown, or white

Tail of a lab

Chemical Properties Chemical properties relate to a substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.

Chemical properties relate to a substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.

Examples of chemical properties: Conductivity -ability to conduct electricity Flammability – ability to ignite Electronegativity – the ability to retain electrons

Conductivity -ability to conduct electricity

Flammability – ability to ignite

Electronegativity – the ability to retain electrons

Density – a Property of Matter Density – a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume. The density of every pure substance in the world is unique.

Density – a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume. The density of every pure substance in the world is unique.

Calculating Density The formula for calculating density is given on your TAKS formula chart, so you must know how to use it

The formula for calculating density is given on your TAKS formula chart, so you must know how to use it

Sample Question Source: Grade 11 TAKS Information Book

Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Remember to duplicate Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Remember to duplicate

Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS

Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 10th TAKS

Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 10th TAKS

 

Part 2 – Changes in Matter

Physical Change A change in the physical appearance of a substance that does not change the identity of the substance. LIQUID SOLID GAS

A change in the physical appearance of a substance that does not change the identity of the substance.

Physical Changes Phase Change – physical change from one state to another LIQUID Between 0°C and 100 0°C SOLID Below 0°C GAS Above 100°C Only the temperature changes Still H 2 O in every form!!!

Phase Change – physical change from one state to another

Physical Changes Examples of physical changes: Crushing an aluminum can Cutting your hair Shredding paper

Examples of physical changes:

Crushing an aluminum can

Cutting your hair

Shredding paper

Chemical Changes Chemical changes, or chemical reactions, occur when one or more substances is converted into another substance. Original atoms are preserved New substances are formed Different chemical composition than original substance

Chemical changes, or chemical reactions, occur when one or more substances is converted into another substance.

Original atoms are preserved

New substances are formed

Different chemical composition than original substance

Chemical Changes Chemical changes are chemical reactions. Indicated by a number of signs formation of a gas, formation of a solid, or precipitate change in temperature evolution of heat and light Change in color Change in odor

Chemical changes are chemical reactions.

Indicated by a number of signs

formation of a gas,

formation of a solid, or precipitate

change in temperature

evolution of heat and light

Change in color

Change in odor

Chemical Changes When iron (Fe) rusts, you can see it happen over a long period of time. The actual iron molecules change their structure as they react with oxygen and are oxidized.

When iron (Fe) rusts, you can see it happen over a long period of time.

The actual iron molecules change their structure as they react with oxygen and are oxidized.

Chemical Changes Examples of chemical changes: Milk souring Grass growing Frying an egg

Examples of chemical changes:

Milk souring

Grass growing

Frying an egg

Energy Transfer All changes (physical and chemical) involve some transfer of energy. Body uses energy from chemical reactions to digest food. Weather involves a transfer of energy to evaporate water in the atmosphere. Therefore, the study of matter also involves the study of energy.

All changes (physical and chemical) involve some transfer of energy.

Body uses energy from chemical reactions to digest food.

Weather involves a transfer of energy to evaporate water in the atmosphere.

Therefore, the study of matter also involves the study of energy.

Summary Extensive Properties Intensive Properties Physical Properties and Changes Chemical Properties and Changes Transfer of Energy

Extensive Properties

Intensive Properties

Physical Properties and Changes

Chemical Properties and Changes

Transfer of Energy

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