Chemistry of sports equipment's

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Information about Chemistry of sports equipment's
Science

Published on April 26, 2014

Author: bejoybj

Source: slideshare.net

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Sports equipments rely heavily on chemistry it is a mixture of metals, ceramics, polymers like Polycarbonate, Polyurethanes, Cyanoacrylate, Polyisoprene, Trans-1,4 polyisoprene

Chemistry of sports Equipments Article written and published By wwww.Worldofchemicals.com

Introduction  Sports and physical activities have been part of the natural endeavors of humans in earth.The primeval records of sports activities date back to the First Olympics Games in 776 B.C. in Greece. Since then, the human yearning for participating in sports activities and this activity has pushed civilizations to create more structure to more sports games.  Worldwide events such as the Olympic Games and theWorld Cup are manifestations of the global participation of humans in sports activities. Large countries and small countries around the world compete against each other for recognition for physical talent and achievement in sports.The competitiveness in sports pushes the individual athletes as well as teams of athletes to constantly enhance their performance in their activity or game.

Introduction Cont  Over the past 100 years the materials used in sports equipment have evolved from raw materials such as wood, twine, gut, and rubber to high-technology metals, polymers, ceramics, and synthetic hybrid materials like composites and cellular concepts.  The design of sports equipment must rely on the knowledge of materials science, engineering, physics, physiology, and biomechanics and must consider various possible characteristics  1Q.] what is the importance of material selection in sports equipment?  2Q.] what are the characteristics of materials to be considered while designing them?  3Q.] what are the other aspects important in designing sports equipments?

1Q.] what is the importance of material selection in sports equipment?

2A] Characteristics of materials to be considered are  Strength  Density  Ductility  Fatigue resistance  Toughness  Modulus (damping)  Cost   Materials which are used in design of sports equipments are   Metals  Ceramics  Polymers etc.

3A] various aspects to be considered while designing materials are  Material science  Mechanical engineering  Physics  Anatomy  Physiology  Biomechanics   Many types of sports equipment rely heavily on chemistry to help athletes reach peak performance and provide critical safety and protective functions along the way.Whether it’s a stadium infrastructure materials tennis ball or baseball bat, elite athletes from around the world depend on the products of chemistry.

Stadium  Stadium is a place or venue for sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.  There is chemistry or chemicals involved in stadium infrastructure. Following are the few chemicals used in stadium equipments, chairs, roofs, turfs.  Polyolefins – These are used in modern day stadium turfs  Polycarbonate – These materials are using for stadium roofing purpose  PVC – All most all parts of the stadiums are made up PVC material

Stadium Cont ..  Polyurethanes  Polyurethanes, a kind of plastic, will play an important role this summer as they are frequently found in running and other athletic shoes, making them more resilient. In addition, polyurethane is found in a wide variety of popular sporting equipment, such as soccer balls, binders on running tracks and judo mats.A number of styles of sport flooring and pour-in-place track surfaces use polyurethanes, as well.These equipment necessities alongside such items as surfboard, roller blades, bowling balls and spandex apparel are all made possible in part due to polyurethane innovations

Stadium Cont ..  Polycarbonate  Polycarbonate, a strong, shatter-resistant plastic, can also be found in protective sports equipment. Polycarbonate is often used in riding and biking helmets, helping protect riders competing in equestrian and cycling competitions. Polycarbonate sunglasses and protective visors, which provide optical clarity as well as shatter-resistance, are worn by runners and rowers, just to name a few. Polycarbonate lenses can also be found in swim goggles.

Archery  Archery is the art, practice, or skill of propelling arrows with the use of a bow.  Archery equipment include   Bows  Arrows  Fletchings  Bow string  Protective equipment  Release aids  Stabilizers

Archery Cont ..  Cyanoacrylate  Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for a family of fast- acting adhesives with industrial, medical and household uses.Cyanoacrylate is used in archery to glue fletching to arrow shafts. 

Badminton  Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net.  It was not until the 1940s that acrylic courts were used in official tournaments. Now, the Australian Open and US Open are both played on acrylic courts.  Badminton equipment include  Racquets  Strings  Grip  Shuttlecock  Shoes  Strings  Synthetic strings are mainly composed of  Nylon  Polyester  Kevlar

Badminton  Vectran  Vectran is a manufactured fiber, spun from a liquid crystal polymer (LCP). It is aromatic polyester produced by the polycondensation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 6- hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid.Vectran fiber is used in manufacturing badminton strings such asYonex BG-85 and BG-80.

Racquets

Racquets Cont ..  In manufacturing of racquets the following chemicals are used   Graphite  Aluminum  Boron  Nylon

Golf  Golf is defined as playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules. It is one of the few ball games that do not require a standardized playing area.  Golf equipment include  Ball  Clubs (Woods, Irons, Putters)  Ball markers  Tees  Golf bag  Golf cart  Towels  Club head covers  Ball mark repair tool  Gloves  Shoes

Clubs (Woods, Irons, Putters)  Golf clubs have been developed and the shafts are now made of steel, titanium, carbon fiber, or other types of metals. Golf heads are made up of by following metal types  Zinc  Die Cast Aluminums, HST and 6061 Aluminum  304 Stainless Steel  Carbon Steel  431 Stainless Steel  17-4 Stainless Steel  6-4 Titanium  15-5 Stainless Steel  Beta Titanium  Maraging Metal  Woods are made from different metals such as  Titanium  Steel  Irons are golf clubs with a flat angled face and a shorter shaft than a wood.They are called irons because they were made of metal.  Putters can be manufactured from wood and metals.

Golf Ball  The first wound ball had three layers made by winding a small, hard core with elastic, rubber thread stretched many times its length and then coating it with a layer of gutta-percha. It was also the first modern ball, although it did not take long for manufacturers to replace the more rigid gutta-percha with rubber.  Gutta-percha/ Polyisoprene  Gutta-percha chemical name is polyterpene, a polymer of isoprene, or polyisoprene, specifically (trans-1,4- polyisoprene).The cis structure of polyisoprene is the common latex elastomer.

Golf Ball Chemicals  Trans-1,4 polyisoprene  Trans-1,4-polyisoprene (gutta-percha) resembles plastic and is used e.g. in golf balls, deep sea cables, orthopedic applications and adhesives.Trans-1,4 polyisoprene is the dominant isomer in gutta-percha and balata, two materials that, like natural rubber, are derived from the milky exudates of certain trees.   Unlike the cis-1,4 polymer, however, the trans-1,4 polymer is highly crystalline, so balata and gutta-percha are tough, hard, and leathery materials-properties that led in the 19th century to their use as sheathings for underwater cables and golf balls.   The trans-1,4 polymer can also be synthesized with Ziegler-Natta catalysts, yielding a synthetic balata of similar properties that also is employed in golf-ball covers as well as in orthopedic devices such as splints and braces.  Surlyn copolymer  Modern day golf balls are made up of Surlyn copolymer which belongs to family of high-performance ethylene copolymers containing acid groups partially neutralized using metal salts such as zinc, sodium and others.

Football  Football is a team game played by both men and women. It has gone through a dramatic change over time. In 1863 British Football Federation was formalized this game.  Football materials  Cloths  Ball  Gloves  Goal post  Football  The 1970 ball was made of leather but by 1974 the football had a "Durlast" polyurethane coating that provided waterproofing as well as protection from damage such as scuffs and tears.  Football contain  Outer layer – it is made of leather or plastic material  Internal layer – It is made of latex or butyl

Gloves  It is made up of  Synthetic leather  Rubber  Neoprene  Cloth

Squash  Squash is a high-speed racquet sport played by two players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.  Squash playing equipments include  Squash ball  Racquet  Eye protection  Shoes

Squash ball  Squash balls, being made of a rubber compound, are of fairly low resilience. When a squash ball hits the racket strings and the wall and floor of the court, some of this energy is transformed into heat in the strings, wall, floor, and surrounding air and some into sound, but most of it becomes heat in the ball itself.   This has two effects: the air inside the ball effectively becomes ‘pressurized’, and the rubber compound from which the ball is made becomes more resilient.   Squash balls are between 39.5 and 40.5 mm in diameter, and have a mass of 23 to 25 grams and these are made up of  Polymers  Fillers  Vulcanizing agents  Processing aids

Cricket  Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on a field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century, it had developed into the national sport of England.  Cricket game requires following materials  Bat  Ball  Gloves  Helmet  Shoes  Pads  Wickets  Bails

Cricket Helmet  Different parts of cricket helmet is made up  Titanium  Polycarbonate  ABS plastic  Polyester

Pole vaulting  Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long, flexible pole as an aid to leap over a bar. It has been a full medal event at the Olympic Games since 1896 for men and 2000 for women.  Pole vaulting pole is made up of carbon-fiber to promote higher jump. In recent years, carbon fiber has been added to the commonly used E-glass and S-glass materials.   MaterialCompositionPercentageS-  Glass materialSilicon dioxide64-66%  Aluminium oxide24-26% Magnesium oxide9-11% E-Glass materialCalcium oxide16- 25% Aluminium oxide12-16% Boron5-10%  Polyoxymethylene  Thermoplastic Polyester Elastomer  Polybutylene Terephthalate  Polyethylene Terephthalate   There are certain materials used in sports equipment which are used for different purposes and these materials are varies according to the purpose. 

Material requirements for pole vault  Purpose Materials  Low density Bamboo  Stiffness Aluminum  Strong Steel  Minimal twisting Magnesium; Carbon fiber composite

Material requirements for Bicycle competition  Purpose Materials  Low density Carbon fiber composite  Stiffness Aluminum  Strong Titanium  Toughness Magnesium  Fatigue resistance Steel

Baseball  Baseball, like softball, is unlike most other competitive sports in that the defense is given control of the ball. Equipment used in this game is  Baseball  Baseball bat  Baseball glove – It is usually lined with polyurethane film  Bases  Helmet - Most helmets are made from crack-resistant, injection-molded plastic, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or fiberglass.  Face mask  Mouth guard - Mouth guards are made of rubber or flexible polyvinyl, which is highly durable and easy to mold.  Uniform –These are made of a blend of synthetic fibers including nylon, polyester, rayon, and acetate.  Shin guard - Shin guards are made from fiberglass, polyurethane, or foam rubber

Reference  1] © From, http://www.tennisstrings.co.uk/strings/index.php  [2] © From, http://www.dow.com/olympicpartnership/solutions/sports_scie nce/  [3] © From, http://www.madehow.com/Volume-3/Tennis- Racket.html  [4] © From, http://www.stringforum.net/about_strings.php  [5] © From, http://www.articlesbase.com/muscle-building- articles/muscle-fitness-and-the-importance-of-chemistry-in- body-building-supplements-445448.html  [6] © From, http://www.cia.org.uk/Portals/0/Sports%20brochure%20final%2 0low%20res.pdf  [7] © From, https://www.tut.fi/ms/muo/vert/6_elastomeric_materials/ir.htm

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