Chemical Bonds

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Information about Chemical Bonds

Published on January 20, 2009

Author: ingylopez


Slide 1: 1. Each element has a different number of electrons Slide 2: 2. Electrons move around the nucleus in levels of energy. Slide 3: 5. 3. Energy levels of electrons depend on the distance from the nucleus a.         a.   The closer, the less energy Th b. The farther away, the more energy Slide 4: 4. There is a limited number of electrons for each energy level or they repel each other Slide 5:  5. Electrons per energy level Level 1 = 2 e- Level 2 = 8 e- Level 3 = 18 e- Level 4 = 32 e- (use formula 2n2 where n = Energy level, and e- = electrons) Slide 8: 6. The Octet Rule: Atoms will gain, lose or share electrons until they have 8 in the outer shell Slide 9: 7. Electron dot diagram: the chemical symbol for an element with dots representing the outer electrons Slide 10: 8. To write an electron dot diagram you need to know the group number Example: Phosphorus (group 15, so 5 e-) Slide 11: Outer energy shell electrons (Valence electrons) Slide 12: 119. If atoms don’t have all their outer energy level electrons, they form chemical bonds by either: a.        A. Sharing them (covalent bond) Slide 15: B. Sharing more than 1 pair of electrons 1. Double bond = 2 pairs of electrons 2. Triple bond = 3 pairs of electrons Slide 16: 10. Atoms sometimes don’t share equally and become POLAR molecules + - Slide 18: 11. Or by B. Losing electrons to other atoms or gaining electrons from other atoms (ionic bonding) Slide 20: Ionic Bond Slide 21: Na Cl Slide 22: Na Cl Slide 23: Na Cl + - Slide 24: Na Cl Slide 25: Comparing Ionic and Covalent bonds Slide 26: 13. Metallic Bond: type of bond in which electrons move among nuclei Slide 27: 14. Properties of metal due to metallic bonding: a. Conduct electricity well b. Conduct heat well c. Easy to shape Slide 28: 15. Properties may also depend on structure of bonds Slide 29: 16.Chemical formula: a combination of chemical symbols of the elements present and how many atoms of each there are   a. Symbols are used for elements, compounds and molecules. b. Subscripts tell the number of atoms in a chemical formula c. Coefficients tell number of molecules Example: H2O (one water molecule) 2 hydrogens,1 oxygen   2H2O (two water molecules) 4 hydrogens, 2 oxygens Slide 30: 17. Chemical bond: a force that holds two or more atoms together

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