CHCECE010 session seven

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Information about CHCECE010 session seven

Published on March 30, 2014

Author: jeanniekuwert


CHCECE010 Support the holistic development of children in early childhood Session Seven – 31/03- 01/04/14

So far.... We have explored: Theories of development and the following domains: physical, social, emotional, language/communication

Today This week we will explore Element 4 Support cognitive development 4.1 Intentionally scaffold children’s learning  4.2 Provide children with a range of materials, resources, technologies and experiences to explore and problem-solve to stimulate cognitive development  4.3 Provide experiences that allow children to explore a range of concepts

The impossible task! Watch Life at 7 - the impossible task AT7.htm

About cognitive development Cognitive development is about growth and change in a person’s ability to gain knowledge, process information and solve problems In cognitive domain we study brain development, memory, learning and thinking Creativity is often treated as part of the cognitive domain

Cognitive theorists Piaget’s stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years) - children obtain information through motor (physical) action and sensory play Preoperational (before logic) stage (2-7 years) - begin to think independently of action and hold mental representations. Ability to represent mental symbols develops rapidly and is seen through language use

Domain linksLanguage and cognitive development are linked Children can use language to: ask questions and gain information that can increase their knowledge understand and express concepts ask problem-solving questions experience situations without actually being there express their own thoughts, likes, dislikes, interests and ideas

Brain development Brain growth in infancy is significant Early relationships and experiences have a long lasting impact on our ability to develop, learn and relate to others Brain comprised of billions of cells called neurons Neurons send and receive information across the organs and muscles

Brain development Connections are made between neurons called synapses By age two children have the same amount of synapses as adults - when connections are not used they disappear For connections to grow and become permanent they need to be stimulated by experiences

Brain development Watch video on How We Learn - Synapses and Neural Pathways 8TeipfQ

Brain development Stimulation of the relevant parts of the brain results in individual becoming competent in particular skills or tasks such as coordination of movement, language or problem solving It has been argued that the pruning and reinforcing of connections in the brain explains why there are cultural variations in skills and thinking Brain growth is said to be an interaction between biology and cultural experience

Sensorimotor thinking Piaget believed that the reflexes infants are born with are the building blocks of thinking and learning Infants use reflexes to at first react and then act on the world in specific ways, gradually learning to adapt and control their physical responses for certain purposes Motor developments are seen as the basis for the eventual development of problem solving abilities and intelligence

Sensorimotor thinking Slowly cognitive skills become separate from motor activity as the child gains the ability to represent objects, actions and feelings with their thoughts and language Around 2 years marks the end of the sensorimotor stage - language can be used more easily to respond to the environment

Object permanence Object permanence - relates to the concept that objects continue to exist when out of sight Watch: JVhjS0 People permanence - emerges from around eight months, infants begin to develop separation anxiety. Infants can only become upset at the absence of someone if they know they exist when out of sight

Recognition memory Infants begin to remember familiar faces, objects and routines Make associations between objects and events e.g. when a six month old sees caregiver get a bottle they may show excitement Infants remember people, things and events through visual and sensory cues.... controlled memory comes later

Attention span - infants To remember and learn infants must pay attention to objects and people in their environment Children’s ability to pay attention: increases with age improves with cognitive maturity influenced by child’s temperament influenced by mood and ability to manage their emotions

Problem solving Begins to emerge from 4 months of age when babies repeat actions that have a stimulated response e.g. baby might drop a rattle and find it makes an interesting sound then try dropping other items

Preoperational thinking During toddlerhood their is a change in the way children learn about the world Piaget believed that the thinking of toddlers and preschoolers is dominated by seeing things from their own point of view This is called egocentric thinking Young children also tend to focus on a single aspect of a situation or object at a time and ignore other aspects This is known as centration

Egocentricism Young children can not take into account the ideas, view point or needs of others May appear as deliberately selfish Thinking and cognitive skills not yet flexible enough to consider more than one aspect of a given situation Watch FgsIbh0

Centration Children only focus on a single feature or one aspect of an object or situation Watch: RTBhAQ

Symbolic functioning Toddlers learn to use and understand symbols that represent the real thing Learning more language so therefore learn that the word ball represents the round rolling thing they played with yesterday Draws a circle with straight lines and says ‘my daddy’ Floats a leaf and says ‘the big boat’

Symbolic functioning Begin to see pretend play e.g. dressing up, pretending to be other people during play, a toy or object becomes something else Symbolic play emerges and toddlers become more imaginative

Attention span - toddlers Begins to increase however they still move quickly between experiences... never seem to sit still Although when they become fascinated by something they can engage for much longer than we expect Toddlers often lack emotional or impulse control required for sustained attention

Memory skills Toddlers start to use recall memory Meaning they can retrieve something from memory without having to see it This is often demonstrated when they imitate behaviour or actions they have seen in the past and is called deferred imitation

Problem solving Toddlers still persist with trial and error to solve problems but they can now think about how to solve the problem before doing anything e.g. if an object is out of reach they may first look for a chair to help them reach it They will use a combination of trial and error and internalised thinking

Concept development Related to how we understand or describe the characteristics of objects, people or ideas e.g. big and small only have meaning when used to describe size During toddlerhood they begin to show understanding of size, colour, number, right and wrong, same and different

Preschoolers cognitive development Cognitive foundation laid in infancy and toddlerhood Preschool thinking becomes less egocentric and more controlled, organised and complex Preschoolers move into the later preoperational stage

Preschoolers cognitive development Thinking in symbols - become more efficient and flexible in symbolic functioning e.g. using symbols to represent real objects. Frequently engage in symbolic play e.g. a block becomes a train as they push on floor

Preschoolers cognitive development Transductive thinking - is when two unrelated things happen at any given time preschool children often believe that one thing caused the other or one thing can not happen without the other e.g. a preschooler may reason that red lights stop cars because every time there is a red light the car stops

Preschoolers cognitive development Intuitive thinking - appears to be more logical than transductive reasoning. Reflects a more appropriate understanding of cause and effect relationships. Their thinking is still dominated by appearance and egocentrism

Piaget Handout 1 on Piaget preoperational stage

Vygotsky Argued that children’s thinking is highly influenced by interactions and conversations with others Proposes that if we want to know how children think we need to observe them when they are relating to others Argues that children can not show their highest level of thinking by themselves and suggests that when children get support by more competent peer or adult they become better at solving problems

Vygotsky Also proposed that language plays a critical role in learning Noted that preschoolers often talk to themselves He called this private speech Enables children to talk through problems and is similar to how adults approach a new task

Memory skills Memory skills are involved in almost all cognitive activity and involves two actions: storing information retrieving information

Memory skills As we grow and develop we begin to use different strategies to store and retrieve information One way to think of how young children store and retrieve information is the notion of scripts They develop a story like images in their mind that are associated with particular events e.g. birthday party might include taking a present, singing happy birthday or playing pass the parcel

Memory skills They are now starting to categorise information but still need practice in developing recall strategies Adults can support this by giving hints or motivation for them to recall previous events or experiences Educators play an important role in supporting children to develop memory skills and recall

Preschoolers concept development Preschoolers level of understanding of a range of concepts is improving however full understanding of many concepts is not achieved until middle childhood Handout 1 - concept development during the preschool years

Preschoolers concept development Cognitive development is not just teaching concepts, these are only part of the picture Learning how to learn and think is more important

Supporting Cognitive development in infancy Provide stimulating environments that encourage them to solve problems Provide experiences that allow them to practise and extend their thinking skills e.g. peek a boo games develop object permanence Providing toys that are open ended or rattles stimulate problem solving skills and encourage them to repeat actions

Supporting Cognitive development in toddlers Opportunities to develop their imagination Toys and activities that encourage them to experiment and problem solve Lots of language Active participation - learning through discovery Sensitive adult input which guides, prompts and supports toddler’s learning

Supporting Cognitive development in preschoolers Providing an interesting and inviting environment Providing challenging experiences Allow children to repeat and revisit Promote problem solving play experiences Provide adult input Respect children’s ideas and thinking Scaffold children’s problem solving

OUTCOME 1: CHILDREN HAVE A STRONG SENSE OF IDENTITY Children feel safe, secure and supported when they confidently explore and engage with social and physical environments through relationships and play or explore aspects of identity through role play Children develop their emerging autonomy, inter- dependence, resilience when they persist when faced with challenges and when first attempts are not successful Children develop knowledgeable and confident self identities when they explore different identities and points of view in dramatic play

OUTCOME 4: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT AND INVOLVED LEARNERS Children develop a range of skills and processes such as problem solving, inquiry, experimentation, hypothesising, researching and investigating when they apply a wide variety of thinking strategies to engage with situations and solve problems, and adapt these strategies to new situations or they manipulate objects and experiment with cause and effect, trial and error, and motion

Cognitive development in middle childhood According to Piaget, typically developing school aged child are entering the third stage of cognitive development Known as concrete operations In this stage children begin to think logically and tend to need concrete objects to help them solve problems e.g. counters, abacus to solve math problems

Cognitive development in middle childhood Less egocentric and can now take on the role of others and see different perspectives Have improved concept of time and distance Can now think before they act

Final note... Watch this 4 month old baby problem solve how to get a toy! aksdb4

Next week Creative development

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