Characteristics and Significance of a Specific Objectives

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Information about Characteristics and Significance of a Specific Objectives
Education

Published on March 16, 2014

Author: VinothiniSylvia

Source: slideshare.net

Description

For IGNOU B.Ed Students - Assignment ES-332

Specific Learning Objectives These are the statements that describe the results in terms of knowledge, attitude and skill of students after learning a content. Specific learning objectives are specific about what the learner would do after an instruction. These objectives are designed to answer questions like: what will pupil do at the end of a learning event. It is also known as behavioural objective or learning objective. Characteristics of Specific Learning Objectives A well-written objective should meet the following criteria: (1) describe a learning outcome, (2) be student oriented, (3) be observable (or describe an observable product).  A well-written objective should describe a learning outcome. It should not describe a learning activity. Learning activities are important in planning and guiding instruction but they are not to be confused with instructional objectives.  It should be student-oriented focusing on the learner and not the teacher. It describes what the learner will be expected to be able to do. It should not describe a teacher activity.  If an instructional objective is not it leads to unclear expectations and it will be difficult to determine whether or not it had been reached. The key to writing observable objectives is to use verbs that are observable and lead to a well defined product of the action implied by that verb. Verbs such as "to know," "to understand," "to enjoy," "to appreciate," "to realize," and "to value" are vague and not observable. Verbs such as "to identify," "to list," "to select," "to compute," "to predict," and "to analyze" are explicit and describe observable actions or actions that lead to observable products.  They are realistic, not aspirational all passing students should be able to demonstrate the knowledge or skill described by the learning outcome at the conclusion of the course. In this way, learning outcomes establish standards for the course.  Focus on the application and integration of acquired knowledge and skills: good learning outcomes reflect and indicate the ways in which the described knowledge and skills may be used by the learner now and in the future.

The specific learning objectives of a project should be "SMART." They should be: Specific: clear about what, where, when, and how the situation will be changed; Measurable: able to quantify the targets and benefits; Achievable: able to attain the objectives Realistic: able to obtain the level of change reflected in the objective; and Time bound: stating the time period in which they will each be accomplished. Importance of Specific Learning Objectives: The specific learning objectives are very important component of teaching system, as they provide the necessary feedback for the adjustments of curriculum, teaching method and teaching aids. They also show how appropriate the curriculum of the institution is. These specific learning objectives can be used as a feedback on how much the institutional objectives have been achieved and how appropriate these objectives are. The objectives start from broad goals at the national level to the instructional level. In the same way when evaluating these objectives, we use the instructional level objectives. From this, evaluation goes to the institutional to the national levels. In other words, the feedback got from the assessment of the instructional objectives is translated into finding and how much the national educational objectives have been achieved in respect to the particular type of institution, and their appropriateness. At the instructional level, they may lead to the adjustment of teaching methods or provision of instructional materials. From the small things, activities, tests, examinations, projects, assignments, exercises, quizzes, home works etc done in the classroom setting, can be used to evaluate, in a general process, the national policy at the national level. Apart from the feedback instructional objectives are also important because the teacher’s plans of what to teach and how to teach it is based on the objectives specified to be achieved. The evaluation of pupils’ learning outcome will make him know whether the objectives are being achieved or not. It means that the instructional objectives give meaning and direction to the educational process. Types of Objectives There are three types of objectives:

1. Cognitive 2. Affective 3. Psychomotor Cognitive Objectives: Cognitive objectives are designed to increase an individual's knowledge. Cognitive objectives relate to understandings, awareness, insights (e.g., This includes knowledge or information recall, comprehension or conceptual understanding, the ability to apply knowledge, the ability to analyze a situation, the ability to synthesize information from a given situation, the ability to evaluate a given situation, and the ability to create something new. Affective Objectives: Affective objectives are designed to change an individual's attitude. Affective objectives refer to attitudes, appreciations, and relationships Psychomotor Objectives: Psychomotor objectives are designed to build a physical skill actions that demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions that evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance or athletic performance. References  Instructional Goals and Objectives retrieved from http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/Objectives/GoalsAndObjectives_print.html  Objectives in the educational process retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r8810e/r8810e04.htm  TAXONOMY OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES IN EDUCATION retrieved from  http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=618  SMART: Characterisitcs of Good Objectives retrieved from http://www.alagad.com.ph/organizational-development/56-organizational- skills/37-smart-characterisitcs-of-good-objectives.html  Characteristics of Good Learning Outcomes retrieved from http://www.teaching.utoronto.ca/topics/coursedesign/learning- outcomes/characteristics.htm

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