Chapter_2_section_1

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Travel-Nature

Published on December 23, 2008

Author: aSGuest7909

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 2: The World Today : Chapter 2: The World Today Section 1: Patterns of Early Civilizations Chapter Perspective : Chapter Perspective The agricultural revolution led to the rise of civilization. The industrial revolution helped European nations to control much of the world. Developing countries face many challenges as they work to build modern and economic systems. Interdependence is a key feature of today’s world. Stone Age People : Stone Age People Scientists traced human origins to about 2 million years ago Most early people survived by gathering fruit, seeds, and nuts and by hunting small animals Early Achievements- people learned to make stone tools and weapons – known as the Stone Age Stone age people use rocks for knives, spear tips, and arrows They learned to control fire and developed simple language Language and better tools allowed them to hunt bigger animals Slide 4: They were nomads which meant traveling from one place to another to find food 90,000 years ago the Earth experienced an ice age, in which people took shelter in caves They adapted by using animal fur and skins for clothing The agricultural revolution – 10,000 years ago Stone Age people made two key advances they learned to farm they domesticated animals Slide 5: 7000 B.C. – farming developed in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley Southeast Asian culture may have developed 2000 years earlier The agricultural revolution had many consequences such as 1) People no longer had to constantly search for food 2) New ways of life developed such as smaller hunting bands 3) Population increase 4) New forms of government developed 5) Religious beliefs changed, instead of worshipping centered on animals they looked to nature gods such as sun and rain gods 6) New tools were developed, such as woven baskets 7) Developed irrigation The First Civilizations : The First Civilizations Population increase gave to the rise of towns and cities City dwellers rely on a surplus to survive and cities became key features of civilizations Civilization – highly organized group of people with their own language and ways of living Many civilizations developed in river valleys in northeastern Africa, Indus valley, and the Huang He river Most characteristics of civilizations are organized governments, complex religions, specialized skills and jobs, social classes, and methods of keeping records Government and religion : Government and religion Archaeologists are scientists who study the objects left by early people Remains show evidence of huge palaces and irrigation systems, thus early civilizations had large governments Temple remains indicate the belief of religion and cooperation of large numbers to build such projects Specialized jobs – special skills of artisans or skilled craft workers i.e. weavers and metal workers Social classes- king at the head of society, then priests and nobles, officials, merchants, farmers, slaves Record keeping- system of writing, tax records, ceremonies and prayers usually writing was done by pictographs Cultural Diffusion : Cultural Diffusion i.e. the Sumerian and Chinese harnesses are examples of trade and improvement through cultural diffusion, Monotheism influences Christianity and Islam Changing World Powers Empires rise and fall 100 A.D. - The Romans and Chinese 1300 A.D. – Rise of Islam, African Kingdoms, Mongol Empire, Aztec, Incas Europe on the fringes – on the borders of trade routes, small European kingdoms had feudal battles for land However, much would change…

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