Chapter_02_epidemiology

50 %
50 %
Information about Chapter_02_epidemiology
Sports

Published on January 14, 2009

Author: aSGuest10506

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 2 : Chapter 2 Epidemiology of Athletic Injuries Overview : Overview Sports injury research, tracking, and trends Recognizing sports injuries Sports participation risks Sports Injury Research : Sports Injury Research Epidemiology: how frequently particular injuries or conditions occur Helpful in determining rules changes to to protect participants Example: spearing in football Sports Injury Research : Sports Injury Research Difficult to conduct Time consuming Costly Generalizability issues Helps athletes and parents make informed decisions regarding participation Sports Injury Tracking : Sports Injury Tracking National Athletic Injury Reporting System (NAIRS) Originally started in 1974 by with NCAA funding College level athletes NCAA Injury Surveillance System Longitudinal study of particular college teams Provides injury data per potential “exposure” Sports Injury Tracking : Sports Injury Tracking NATA High School Injury Study Large scale study designed to gather data about high school athletic injuries National Electronic Injury Surveillance System Hospitals provide data about injuries Data used to implement changes when necessary Sports Injury Tracking : Sports Injury Tracking Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Not directly related to injuries, but still some relationship National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry Responsible for rule changes in FB Sports Injury Tracking : Sports Injury Tracking National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research Based at U of North Carolina Healthy People 2010 Accident and Injury Reporting System Worker’s compensation issues Sports Injury Tracking : Sports Injury Tracking National Youth Sports Safety Foundation Focus on organized youth sports Center for Injury Research and Control U of Pittsburgh Sports Injury Trends : Sports Injury Trends Difficult to establish due to data limitations Team sports Individual sports Projectile sports Body movement sports Sports Injury Trends : Sports Injury Trends Team sports Risk of injury decreases with experience Playing surface vitally important “Give” of hardwood Turf vs. grass Astroplay etc. slowly becoming available and shows a marked improvement over previous generations of synthetic turf Sports Injury Trends : Sports Injury Trends Individual sports Reduced risk compared to team sports Projectile sports Upper extremity intensive Biomechanics critical Body movement sports Overuse injuries common Nature and severity largely sport dependent Recognizing Different Sports Injuries : Recognizing Different Sports Injuries Overview : Overview The RICE protocol Sports injuries Acute Overuse RICE : RICE Rest, ice, compression, elevation Used for acute injuries to decrease pain, minimize cell death, minimize swelling and minimize inflammation Acute Injuries : Acute Injuries Fractures Stress fractures Dislocations Sprains Contusions Strains Types of Fractures : Types of Fractures Classifications: Closed Open Types Depressed Greenstick Incomplete break Impacted Direct crushing blow Longitudinal Split along length Types of Fractures : Types of Fractures Oblique Sudden twist on one end w/ fixation at other Comminuted “Shattered” Spiral Torsion-caused break Types of Fractures : Types of Fractures Serrated Rough jagged edges from direct blow Often becomes compound Transverse Perpendicular to bone shaft; Relatively clean break Types of Fractures : Types of Fractures Avulsion Ligament or tendon is pulled on forcefully…instead of rupturing, it pulls a small chunk of its bony attachment away from the rest of the bone Stress Fractures : Stress Fractures Develop from overuse Usually do not appear on x-ray for several weeks Pain worsens over time; May be worst immediately after activity Dull, difficult to locate pain Dislocations & Subluxations : Dislocations & Subluxations Bone is forced from its normal position Dislocation: stays out; Subluxation: slips out & returns X-ray first time dislocations Don’t reduce! Sprains : Sprains Ligament tear Grade I Some stretching Grade II Some tearing Grade III Complete rupture Sprains : Sprains Sprains : Sprains Sprains : Sprains Contusions : Contusions Bruise May produce significant pain, swelling & discoloration Risk of myositis ossificans in large muscle groups Strains : Strains “Pulled” muscle Graded I-III (like ligament sprains) Grade I: mild stretching of fibers; Painful, but full ROM Grade II: some tearing of fibers, palpable defect, pain, ecchymosis (discoloration), & moderate to severe pain Grade III: complete rupture, intense to no pain, unable to move affected body part normally Chronic Overuse Injuries : Chronic Overuse Injuries Tendinitis Bursitis Trigger points Chronic Overuse Injuries : Chronic Overuse Injuries Tendinitis Inflammation of tendon Crepitus Rest is key; Use RICE & cross friction massage or soft tissue mobilization SASTM.com Graston Technique Performance Dynamics ASTYM Chronic Overuse Injuries : Chronic Overuse Injuries Bursitis Fluid filled sacs that lubricate tendons May become swollen & inflamed Chronic Overuse Injuries : Chronic Overuse Injuries Trigger points Localized areas of spasm Are symptoms, not lone disorders Treat symptoms with massage, ice, TENS, etc Treat source with biomechanical analysis/rehab Sport Participation Risks : Sport Participation Risks Overview : Overview Sport participation risks Football Soccer Hockey Basketball Gymnastics Lacrosse Volleyball Rugby Rodeo Wrestling Overview : Overview Handball Baseball/softball Track and field Tennis Golf Swimming Skating Risk factors Football : Football Widespread participation=increased risk for injury Potentially catastrophic (although rare) Lower extremity injuries most common Soccer : Soccer Increasing popularity=increasing injuries Ankle injuries most common Knee and thigh common as well Head, neck, and spine (concussions) Hockey : Hockey Heavy contact Injury data sparse Contusions, sprains (MCL), lacerations, strains (adductor) most common Head and face Basketball : Basketball Considered a contact sport Ankle injuries most common Lower extremity Wrist and hand Female concerns (ACL) Gymnastics : Gymnastics Second only to football in injury rates Lower extremity most common (ankles > knees) Spinal pathologies Lacrosse : Lacrosse East coast sport Injuries similar to soccer Head and face Protective equipment differences between genders Volleyball : Volleyball Nearly year-round sport at competitive levels Acute injuries Ankle Hand and fingers Knee Overuse Shoulder Spine Rugby : Rugby Lack of consistent medical supervision All body parts at risk due to lack of protective equipment and heavy physical contact Head and face in particular Rodeo : Rodeo Concussions, head, neck injuries most serious Broken bones, lacerations, internal organ trauma Inconsistent medical coverage Wrestling : Wrestling Beware folding chairs and portable tables ? Shoulders & knees AC joint Skin conditions Brachial plexus Cauliflower ear Handball : Handball Rare in U.S. Elbow, ankle, knee and shoulder injuries most prevalent Baseball and Softball : Baseball and Softball Abrasions common (sliding) Sprains, strains, and fractures Contusions Upper extremity most at risk (overuse) Pitchers (shoulders & elbows) & catchers (knees) most often injured Track & Field : Track & Field Throwing events: upper extremity Field events: lower extremity & spine Sprints: acute Distance: overuse Tennis : Tennis Overuse injuries due to poor mechanics Tennis elbow Shoulder bursitis/impingement Ankle and knee injuries also relatively common Golf : Golf Spine injuries most common “Golfer’s elbow” due to overuse of flexor origin or striking the ball “fat” Swimming : Swimming Overuse shoulder injuries Impingement Thoracic outlet Postural problems Back and neck Ear infections & URIs Skating : Skating Wrist & elbow (Fall-on-outstretched-hand [FOOSH] injuries) Skin abrasions Fractures, sprains, & strains Risk Factors (Skeletal) : Risk Factors (Skeletal) Skeletal immaturity Growth plate injury Legg-Calve-Perthes disease Femoral head dies More frequent in boys Osteoid osteoma Bone tumor Risk Factors (Skeletal) : Risk Factors (Skeletal) Osgood Schlatter disease Attachment of the quad becomes irritated Tibial tuberosity becomes enlarged Risk Factors (Skeletal) : Risk Factors (Skeletal) Spondylolysis Stress fracture to the pars interarticularis Spondylolisthesis Anterior slippage due to pars defect Risk Factors (Skeletal) : Risk Factors (Skeletal) Scoliosis Leg length difference May result in functional scoliosis Other Risk Factors : Other Risk Factors Gender differences Psychological profile Epilepsy Diabetes Asthma/EIA Marfan syndrome Congenital heart abnormalities Other Risk Factors : Other Risk Factors Myocarditis Cardiomyoapathy Absence of one set of paired organs Visual impairments Communicable disease

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Quintessenz Verlags-GmbH - Promoting the Oral Health of ...

Chapter 02 - Epidemiology of Oral Health Problems in Children and Adolescents Chapter 03 - A Social Determinants Approach to Reduce Inequalities and ...
Read more

Quintessenz - Buch-Information

Chapter 02 - Epidemiology of Oral Health Problems in Children and Adolescents Chapter 03 - A Social Determinants Approach to Reduce Inequalities and ...
Read more

PROMOTING THE ORAL HEALTH OF CHILDREN. THEORY AND PRACTICE

Chapter 02 - Epidemiology of Oral Health Problems in Children and Adolescents Chapter 03 - A Social Determinants Approach to Reduce Inequalities and ...
Read more

Promoting the Oral Health of Children - Quintessence.hr

Promoting the Oral Health of Children; Promoting the Oral Health of Children. ... Chapter 02 - Epidemiology of Oral Health Problems in Children and ...
Read more

Chapter 2 Powerpoint Slide Download - 218303

Chapter 02 epidemiology.ppt File Size: unknown Published on: July 23rd, 2011 Publisher: athletictraining.siuc.edu Report Abuse. Download. Destinations: ...
Read more

Promoting the Oral Health of Children: Theory and Practice ...

PROMOTING THE ORAL HEALTH OF CHILDREN: THEORY AND PRACTICE, SECOND EDITION. Aubrey Sheiham, Samuel Jorge Moysés, Richard G. Watt, and Marcelo Bönecker.
Read more

KIN 225: Introduction to Athletic Training Powerpoint ...

Chapter 02 epidemiology.ppt File Size: unknown Published on: August 22nd, 2012 Publisher: athletictraining.siu.edu Report Abuse. Download. Destinations: ...
Read more

Quintessenz | Szakkönyvek

Chapter 02 - Epidemiology of Oral Health Problems in Children and Adolescents Chapter 03 - A Social Determinants Approach to Reduce Inequalities and ...
Read more

Promoting the Oral Health of Children: Theory and Practice ...

This new edition advocates for a paradigm shift in which dental and primary health care professionals work together in promoting the oral health of ...
Read more