Published on November 18, 2017
Slide2: All animals are multicelled, and nearly all have cells organized as tissues Tissue A collection of one or more specific cell types that are organized to perform a specific task Slide3: Four types of tissues occur in all vertebrates 1. Epithelial tissues cover body surfaces and line internal cavities 2. Connective tissues hold body parts together and provide structural support 3. Muscle tissues move the body and its parts 4. Nervous tissues detect stimuli and relay information Slide4: Structural traits evolve by natural selection Existing structures are modified over generations in ways that better adapt their bearers to their environment New structures evolve by modifying existing ones Slide5: All structural levels interact in processes that keep conditions in the internal environment within levels that cells can tolerate Homeostasis The process of maintaining favorable conditions inside the body Slide6: food, water intake oxygen inhaled Digestive System Respiratory System carbon dioxide exhaled nutrients, water, solutes oxygen carbon dioxide Circulatory System Urinary System water, solutes excretion of food residues transport of materials to and from cells elimination of soluble wastes, excess water, and salts Slide8: Animal tissues are usually organized into organs Organ Structural unit composed of two or more tissues organized to carry out specific tasks Organ system Organs and other components that interact physically and/or chemically in a common task Slide9: Many human organs are located in body cavities Slide10: RECAPITULATION: An organ is a structural unit of different tissues combined in definite proportions and patterns that allow them to perform a common task Examples: heart, stomach, liver, eyes, kidneys, lungs, and skin Most organs include all four tissue types Slide11: An organ system consists of two or more organs interacting in tasks that keep individual cells and the whole body functioning Survival and reproduction depend on interactions among all organ systems All vertebrates have the same types of organ systems Slide12: Integumentary System Protects body from injury, dehydration, and some pathogens; controls its temperature; excretes certain wastes; receives some external stimuli. Nervous System Detects external and internal stimuli; controls and coordinates responses to stimuli; integrates all organ system activities. Muscular System Moves body and its internal parts; maintains posture; generates heat by increases in metabolic activity. Skeletal System Supports and protects body parts; provides muscle attachment sites; produces red blood cells; stores calcium, phosphorus. Circulatory System Rapidly transports many materials to and from cells; helps stabilize internal pH and temperature. Endocrine System Hormonally controls body functioning; with nervous system integrates short- and long-term activities. (Male testes added.) Eleven Vertebrate Organ Systems Slide13: Lymphatic System Collects and returns some tissue ﬂ uid to the bloodstream; defends against infection and tissue damage. Respiratory System Rapidly delivers oxygen to the tissue ﬂ uid that bathes all living cells; removes carbon dioxide wastes of cells; helps regulate pH. Digestive System Ingests food and water; mechanically, chemically breaks down food and absorbs small molecules into internal environment; eliminates food residues. Urinary System Maintains the volume and solute composition of internal ﬂ uids; excretes excess ﬂ uid, solutes, and dissolved wastes. Reproductive System Male: Produces and transfers sperm to the female. Hormones of both systems also in ﬂ uence other organ systems. Female: Produces eggs; after fertilization, affords a protected, nutritive environment for the development of a new individual.