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Information about chapter14

Published on December 17, 2007

Author: Jacqueline


Chapter Fourteen:  Chapter Fourteen Responding to Personal and Work-Related Stress Chapter Preview: Responding to Personal and Work-Related Stress :  Chapter Preview: Responding to Personal and Work-Related Stress Understanding the stress factors in your life Major personal and work-related causes of stress Assessing stress in your life Warning signs of stress Stress management strategies Stress-related psychological disorders The Stress Factor in Your Life:  The Stress Factor in Your Life Stress is the behavioral adjustment to change that affects you psychologically and physically Process by which your mind and body mobilize energy to cope with change and challenge The Stress Factor in Your Life:  The Stress Factor in Your Life Stress can come from your Environment Body Mind The Stress Factor in Your Life:  The Stress Factor in Your Life Environmental stress can come from Noise Safety concerns Crowded work areas Windowless settings Poorly designed workstations The Stress Factor in Your Life:  The Stress Factor in Your Life Bodily stress can be caused by Poorly designed work stations Illness Injuries Bodily strain The Stress Factor in Your Life:  The Stress Factor in Your Life The most common type of stress comes from our minds Can be either positive or negative Most is caused by negative thinking and faulty reasoning Positive Aspects of Mental Stress:  Positive Aspects of Mental Stress Powerful stimulus for growth Build energy and desire Promote greater awareness Help focus on task completion Negative Aspects of Mental Stress:  Negative Aspects of Mental Stress Can trigger complex physiological changes in the brain and body Problems related to stress Absenteeism Burnout Mental health issues Cost American business more than $300 billion/year Total Person Insight:  Total Person Insight We’re all trained as children in the basics of reading and writing, but we’re not taught about stress management. As adults, we flock to therapists, physicians, yoga classes and health clubs anxiously seeking magic cures, but relief rarely comes, and it’s usually temporary. Robert Epstein Editor-in-Chief, Psychology Today Responding to Stress:  Responding to Stress Three elements of stress The triggering event or thought (stressor) Perception of it Response to it Responding to Stress:  Responding to Stress Train the body and mind to handle the stress Attempt to respond in ways that help establish balance the Mental Physical Emotional Responding to Stress:  Responding to Stress Our natural response to stress is called the fight or flight syndrome This reaction helped our ancestors survive Yet cause us physical and mental health problems today Fight or Flight Syndrome:  Fight or Flight Syndrome Typical reaction by humans and animals Adrenaline pours into the bloodstream Heart rate and blood pressure increase Breathing accelerates Muscles tighten The body is poised to fight or run! Fight or Flight Syndrome:  Fight or Flight Syndrome Everyone reacts differently to stress No single stress management technique Methods should fit individual needs Major Causes of Stress:  Major Causes of Stress Change Technostress Noise pollution Long hours/Irregular schedules Incompetent leaders Work and family transitions Change:  Change Workplace change comes in many forms Work faster Master advanced technology Take on new assignments Work in teams Involvement with clients. Restructuring Change:  Change Many companies do not consider the impact of change on employees Companies should try to help employees balance job change with personal and family life Technostress:  Technostress Technostress is the inability to cope with computer and related technologies in a healthy manner One of the greatest stressors today Technostress:  Technostress It may take many forms: Upgrade anxiety Tether anxiety Monitoring anxiety Computer addiction Information overload The computer workstation Upgrade Anxiety:  Upgrade Anxiety Companies often acquire new computers every one or two years Workers have to learn new technology just as they were adjusting to the old Tether Anxiety:  Tether Anxiety Never-ending desire to access information Work constantly demands your attention via Laptop computers Cell phones Pagers Employees too accessible creating imbalance between personal and professional life Monitoring Anxiety:  Monitoring Anxiety Companies may track performance and activity with technology Computer monitoring Video surveillance Recording calls Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) Computer Addiction:  Computer Addiction Compulsive surfers Much the same as other addictions Signs of the techno-centered state include High degree of factual thinking Poor access to feelings Low tolerance for the ambiguities of human behavior and communication Information Overload:  Information Overload Data smog describes the information-dense society that can cause sensory overload Crowds out quiet moments and contemplation time The Computer Workstation:  The Computer Workstation Many employees spend entire day on a computer terminal Computer-related ailments Carpal tunnel syndrome Vision problems Fast growing organizational hazards focus attention on ergonomics The Computer Workstation:  The Computer Workstation Ergonomics is the study of optimal work-area layout, lighting, furniture design, machine structure, and task limits Slide28:  Figure 14.2 Figure 14.1 Suggestions for Alleviating Some of the Effects of Workstation-Related Technostress Source: Gannett News Service. Used with permission. Noise Pollution:  Noise Pollution Noise can be defined as unwanted sound Can produce harmful physical and mental effects Affects people more than any other work area pollutant Noise can cause Hearing loss Tinnitus or persistent buzzing, ringing Slide30:  Figure 14.2 Contribution to Workplace Distractions Overall Source: Copyright © 1996 by the American Society of Interior Designers. Reprinted by permission. Long Hours/Irregular Schedules :  Long Hours/Irregular Schedules Compared to other developed countries, Americans Take fewer and shorter vacations Work more hours Additional demands on workers Reductions in staff 24/7 economy Incompetent Leaders:  Incompetent Leaders Tendency to promote the most talented individuals to supervisory positions The most talented technically are not necessarily the best supervisors Can be a major source of stress at work Incompetent Leaders:  Incompetent Leaders Incompetent leaders may Fail to recognize employee ideas and concerns Withhold information from employees Fail to clarify roles and responsibilities Set unreasonable deadlines and then blame employees for not meeting them Be unable or unwilling to apply leadership skills Work and Family Transitions:  Work and Family Transitions Transition is being forced to give something up and face a change Transitions are inevitable Today, we are in a constant state of transition Some common transitions are Marriage or divorce Birth or death Total Person Insight:  Total Person Insight Our lives are complex, but we are not helpless to do something about the stress we feel. In fact, we often choose to intentionally overcrowd our schedules as a means of avoiding difficult feelings and choices. The something forces us to slow down. We must listen to our hearts and bodies, and face a dawning awareness: My job, my spouse, my lifestyle—something—is not right for me. Carol S. Pearson Editor, The Inner Edge Assessing the Stress in Your Life:  Assessing the Stress in Your Life Adjustment needed to cope with various life events Both positive and negative events require adjustment Signs aredifferent for each person Listen to your body! Warning Signals of Too Much Stress:  Warning Signals of Too Much Stress Physical signs Lower back pain Headaches Loss of appetite Hypertension Coronary problems Fatigue Warning Signals of Too Much Stress:  Warning Signals of Too Much Stress Psychological signs Anxiety Depression Irritability Paranoia Reduced interest in relationships Stress Management Strategies:  Stress Management Strategies Not possible to eliminate stress There are many stress management strategies Many require only a small investment of time Stress Management Strategies:  Stress Management Strategies Sleep Exercise Nutrition Meditation Humor and fun Solitude Emotional hardiness Sleep:  Sleep One of the most effective strategies for managing stress The amount needed varies for each individual Influenced by Age Physical activity Chemical habits Fitness Diet Sleep:  Sleep You can deepen your capacity to handle stress by improving your sleep recovery periods Improving Sleep Recovery:  Improving Sleep Recovery Develop a ritual: go to bed and get up at the same time Avoid strenuous exercise within two hours of bedtime Avoid stimulants such as caffeine, chocolate, alcohol, or nicotine near bedtime Improving Sleep Recovery:  Improving Sleep Recovery Keep your bedroom cool and well ventilated Get a half-hour of sunlight within thirty minutes of awakening Deactivates sleep hormones and activates arousal hormones Exercise:  Exercise Exercise can act as a buffer against stress Regular aerobic exercise can increase your stress capacity Even gentle exercise can help manage stress load Most Americans do not exercise regularly Exercise Guidelines:  Exercise Guidelines Check with your physician before you begin any exercise program Engage in warm-up activities before any aerobic activity Choose an exercise program you enjoy! Nutrition:  Nutrition Health experts agree that eating the right foods can replenish the vitamins and minerals lost when you are under stress, and can calm the nervous system Nutrition Basics:  Nutrition Basics Start your day with a healthy breakfast Eat often and lightly Combine protein and carbohydrates to boost alertness Reduce fat by baking, broiling, or grilling Nutrition Basics:  Nutrition Basics Drink eight glasses of water each day Take a multivitamin, multimineral supplement daily Meditation:  Meditation The stresses we feel today are more likely to be psychological or interpersonal This type of stress may best be handled through the use of the relaxation response Meditation:  Meditation The relaxation response is a simple meditation technique to reduce the damaging effects of stress Slows metabolism Lowers blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and brain-wave activity Meditation:  Meditation Select a quiet place Sit in a comfortable chair, or lie down on a couch or the floor Relax the muscles of your body Let go of all the tension Focus on your breathing Inhale deeply through your nostrils and exhale slowly out of your mouth Meditation:  Meditation Every time you breathe out, repeat a word or phrase (mantra) i.e., "peace" or "relax" Assume a passive attitude With practice, you will find it easy to turn back intruding thoughts, and you will have fewer of them Humor and Fun:  Humor and Fun Laughter heightens our mood and releases tension Laughter is a gentle exercise of the body that involves physiological changes such as Skin temperature Heart rate Muscle tension Blood pressure Brain-wave activity Humor and Fun:  Humor and Fun Improving your sense of humor can help you recover from stress Make time in your life for humor and fun! Total Person Insight:  Total Person Insight I try to find a reason to laugh under high stress. It’s an important part of everything I do. When things get rough, I actually look for funny things, particularly in myself. The more stress I have, the more I use humor to break me up and then refocus. Charles L. Peifer President and CEO, Prince Sports Group Solitude:  Solitude Individuals who have constant contact with others can benefit from solitude An emotional breather and form of rest Time to process and unravel problems Achieving Solitude:  Achieving Solitude Schedule a time for solitude Meditate, journal write, or sit in silence Consider period of solitude a new experience of time Emotional Hardiness:  Emotional Hardiness Resilience is being able to bound back when confronted with stress Emotional hardiness is the ability to feel in control of the events in your life Those who have emotional hardiness are better able to control their lives Stress May Be Your Fault:  Stress May Be Your Fault Exam your expectations If expectations are not in line with reality, you will feel out of control Learn to recognize your limitations Drop one activity at a time until the pressure is off Total Person Insight:  Total Person Insight Culturally and individually, somewhere in our history, we chose to make material possessions important, not realizing that we would pay for all these things—consumer goods, improvements, technology—at the cost of our time. Jacob Needleman Author, Time and the Soul Common Psychological Disorders :  Common Psychological Disorders Anxiety Depression Burnout Anxiety:  Anxiety Condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long-standing and usually disruptive It is a disorder only when persistent and prevents you from leading a normal life Anxiety Disorders:  Anxiety Disorders Phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation Claustrophobia: fear of confined spaces Agoraphobia: fear of crowds and public places Treating Anxiety:  Treating Anxiety Self-help through stress management skills Relaxation techniques Professional help Depression:  Depression A mood disorder that impacts a person’s productivity or relationships Primarily impacts ages 20 through 40 Symptoms include Withdrawal Overwhelming sadness Hopelessness Treating Depressing:  Treating Depressing A treatable disorder that often requires a variety of approaches Exercise Professional help Burnout:  Burnout Burnout is feeling emotionally, intellectually, and physically drained day after day You move beyond exhaustion to a state of feeling numb A complete physical and mental breakdown can result from burnout Common Symptoms of Burnout:  Common Symptoms of Burnout Detachment from coworkers and clients Negative attitudes Tardiness, absenteeism, and carelessness Physical problems Personal problem Burnout:  Burnout Often impacts successful people who hold high-level positions People who have little feedback or support network Burnout Guidelines:  Burnout Guidelines Stop trying to do everything If you must refuse a task, help devise a solution Clarify your value priorities Make time to participate in stress management techniques Therapy Options:  Therapy Options Sometimes we require one-on-one or group therapy You may feel better just by having someone listen to your concerns. Everyone needs emotional support and a chance to vent feelings Employee Assistance Programs (EAP):  Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) Services designed to address negative effects of psychological disorders before employees become dysfunctional Anxiety Burnout Depression Marital problems Alcohol or drug abuse Career or marital concerns Twelve-Step Programs:  Twelve-Step Programs Programs rely on similar fundamentals Working the steps Admit the problem Recognize life is unmanageable Turn life over to high power Attending meetings Critics argue program replaces one addiction with another Web-based Counseling:  Web-based Counseling Growing in popularity May be risky No guarantee of legitimacy Confidentiality Summary:  Summary Stress usually results when individuals cannot adequately respond to change or unexpected events It cannot be eliminated, but can be managed Can have both positive and negative impacts Summary:  Summary Many stressors are experienced at work Technostress Noise pollution Irregular schedules Overtime mandate Incompetent leadership Summary:  Summary Transitions that occur in personal life can add stress and interfere with effectiveness on the job Marriage Divorce Relocation Summary:  Summary Some stress is beneficial and helps keep a person motivated and excited The goal is not to eliminate stress, but to assess the cause and increase the capacity to deal with it through appropriate stress management strategies Summary:  Summary Many organizations are offering counseling services through employee assistance programs (EAPs) Workers may rely on twelve-step programs to help in coping with various addictions that may be a result of too much stress Summary:  Summary Stress management techniques include Sleep Eat well Exercise Meditation Time alone Fun Emotional hardiness Summary:  Summary When stress becomes persistent and overwhelming, it can lead to psychological disorders Anxiety Depression Burnout Self-help or professional therapy can work Summary:  Summary Professional help includes One-on-one Group 12-step programs On-line counseling Organizations may try to help through Employee Assistance Programs

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