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Published on January 27, 2008

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chapter13

Chapter 13: Human and Artificial Intelligence

What Do You Consider Intelligence?

Intelligence Is… Capacity to learn from experience Ability to adapt to different contexts The use of metacognition to enhance learning

Capacity to learn from experience

Ability to adapt to different contexts

The use of metacognition to enhance learning

Emotional Intelligence Mayer & Salovey (1997) “ The capacity to reason about emotions, and of emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth”

Mayer & Salovey (1997)

“ The capacity to reason about emotions, and of emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth”

Social Intelligence Ability to get along with others Knowledge of social matters Insight into moods or underlying personality traits of others

Ability to get along with others

Knowledge of social matters

Insight into moods or underlying personality traits of others

Artificial Intelligence The computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world

The computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world

Historical Trends Emphasize psychophysical abilities Galton Examine relationships of sensory abilities Emphasize on judgment Binet (1904) Identify children needing special instruction Compared child’s abilities to what the average child at that age could do

Emphasize psychophysical abilities

Galton

Examine relationships of sensory abilities

Emphasize on judgment

Binet (1904)

Identify children needing special instruction

Compared child’s abilities to what the average child at that age could do

Historical Trends Terman (1900s) Created an English version of Binet’s test (called it the Stanford-Binet) Created the intelligence quotient (IQ) : divide mental age by chronological age then multiply by 100 Became the first modern “intelligence” test

Terman (1900s)

Created an English version of Binet’s test (called it the Stanford-Binet)

Created the intelligence quotient (IQ) : divide mental age by chronological age then multiply by 100

Became the first modern “intelligence” test

Types of items on the Stanford-Binet Can describe the difference between happiness and elation, and virtue and morality. Adult Fills in the missing words of sentences like "The rivers are flooding because…." 12 Answers correctly when the examiner says, “Yesterday, the scientist went into the swamp to capture a dinosaur. What is foolish about that? 9 Fill in the missing word when asked, "A puppy is a dog, a kitten is a _______. 4 Task Age

Wechsler Intelligence Scales Wechsler created scales for adults, children, and preschoolers Yield 3 scores Verbal score Performance score Overall score Most widely used intelligence test

Wechsler created scales for adults, children, and preschoolers

Yield 3 scores

Verbal score

Performance score

Overall score

Most widely used intelligence test

Types of Items on the Wechsler   Similarities Object assembly Comprehension Digit symbol Arithmetic Block design Vocabulary Picture arrangement Digit span Picture completion Information Performance Scales Verbal Scales

Measurement or Process? Measurement structure Identify most relevant factors Process emphasis Identify and examine the speed and accuracy of mental manipulations

Measurement structure

Identify most relevant factors

Process emphasis

Identify and examine the speed and accuracy of mental manipulations

Nature, Nurture, or Both? Is intelligence genetic? Is intelligence acquired? Is intelligence a combination of both?

Is intelligence genetic?

Is intelligence acquired?

Is intelligence a combination of both?

Factor Analysis Primary method used to describe intelligence structure Correlations among many dependent variables are examined with the goal of discovering something about the nature of the factors that affect them How many different factors are needed to explain the pattern of relationships among these variables?

Primary method used to describe intelligence structure

Correlations among many dependent variables are examined with the goal of discovering something about the nature of the factors that affect them

How many different factors are needed to explain the pattern of relationships among these variables?

Factor Analysis Matrix 0.57 0.04 0.02 Series completion 0.65 -0.01 -0.03 Block patterns 0.77 0.20 0.05 Paper folding -0.02 0.87 -0.24 Multiplication 0.10 0.82 0.02 Identifying shapes 0.04 0.91 0.08 Counting dots -0.02 0.04 0.81 Word meaning -0.01 -0.05 0.86 Sentence completion 0.06 0.10 0.84 Paragraph comprehension Visual Numerical Reading  

Number of Factors in the Structure of Intelligence Spearman says two Thurstone says seven Guilford says 150 Cattell, Vernon, and Carroll propose hierarchical models

Spearman says two

Thurstone says seven

Guilford says 150

Cattell, Vernon, and Carroll propose hierarchical models

Spearman’s “g” Factor Two-factor theory of intelligence All intellective functioning was due to an overall mental ability – “g” Accompanied by specific abilities for differing mental tasks

Two-factor theory of intelligence

All intellective functioning was due to an overall mental ability – “g”

Accompanied by specific abilities for differing mental tasks

Thurstone’s 7 Primary Mental Abilities Verbal comprehension Verbal fluency Inductive reasoning Spatial visualization Number Memory Perceptual speed

Verbal comprehension

Verbal fluency

Inductive reasoning

Spatial visualization

Number

Memory

Perceptual speed

Guilford SOI Model Structure of Intelligence Each cube represents an intersection of operations, products and contents to create 150 components of intelligence

SOI Model

Structure of Intelligence

Each cube represents an intersection of operations, products and contents to create 150 components of intelligence

Cattell’s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid intelligence Ability to reason and use information Peaks approximately at age 20 Crystallized intelligence Acquired skill and learned knowledge Continues to increase into old age

Fluid intelligence

Ability to reason and use information

Peaks approximately at age 20

Crystallized intelligence

Acquired skill and learned knowledge

Continues to increase into old age

Carroll’s Three-Strata Model g fluid crystalized memory Visual perception Auditory perception retrieval Cognitive speed Processing speed Stratum II: Broad abilities Stratum III: General Stratum I: Narrow abilities Listening Perceptual speed Word fluency Word recognition

Historical Trends & Intelligence In the past, focus was on the product, identify aptitudes, measure, and create models based on data During 1960’s & 1970’s conceptualization changed to what are the processes involved? Information processing models focus on the processes that are involved in intelligence

In the past, focus was on the product, identify aptitudes, measure, and create models based on data

During 1960’s & 1970’s conceptualization changed to what are the processes involved?

Information processing models focus on the processes that are involved in intelligence

Information Processing & Intelligence Inspection time How long a stimuli has to be viewed before an accurate judgment can be made How quickly a person gives their answer is irrelevant, participants are encouraged to take their time

Inspection time

How long a stimuli has to be viewed before an accurate judgment can be made

How quickly a person gives their answer is irrelevant, participants are encouraged to take their time

Inspection Time Demonstration *

Inspection Time and IQ Nettlebeck & Lally (1976) First to note the relationship Nettlebeck (1987) Inspection time accounts for 25% of IQ variance (r = -.5) The higher the IQ, the less stimulus time needed to accurately inspect the stimuli Big issue now is direction of causation between the two variables

Nettlebeck & Lally (1976)

First to note the relationship

Nettlebeck (1987)

Inspection time accounts for 25% of IQ variance (r = -.5)

The higher the IQ, the less stimulus time needed to accurately inspect the stimuli

Big issue now is direction of causation between the two variables

Intelligence and Other Processes The speed at which we process thought can explain why one individual is more intelligent than another Choice Reaction Time Jensen Lexical Access Speed Hunt Speed of word retrieval

The speed at which we process thought can explain why one individual is more intelligent than another

Choice Reaction Time

Jensen

Lexical Access Speed

Hunt

Speed of word retrieval

Working Memory & Intelligence Being able to store and manipulate information in working memory is related to level of intelligence

Being able to store and manipulate information in working memory is related to level of intelligence

Componential Analysis This approach involves identifying the steps in complex information-processing tasks and seeing how each process contributes to the decision Sternberg’s componential analysis on solving analogies Red : Stop :: Green : ____ Graceful: Clumsy :: late : _____ Encode - Identify each term of the problem Inference - Discover rule between 1 st two terms Mapping - Map rule to second set of terms Application - Apply relationship and generate final term

This approach involves identifying the steps in complex information-processing tasks and seeing how each process contributes to the decision

Sternberg’s componential analysis on solving analogies

Red : Stop :: Green : ____

Graceful: Clumsy :: late : _____

Encode - Identify each term of the problem

Inference - Discover rule between 1 st two terms

Mapping - Map rule to second set of terms

Application - Apply relationship and generate final term

Sternberg’s Findings Measured amount reaction time for each step Found more intelligent participants took longer to encode, but less time to complete the remaining steps Global versus local planning

Measured amount reaction time for each step

Found more intelligent participants took longer to encode, but less time to complete the remaining steps

Global versus local planning

Contextualist View of Intelligence Culture and definition of intelligence are intertwined Differs from one culture to another Critical in one culture may be unimportant in another culture Measurement of intelligence will be influenced by culture

Culture and definition of intelligence are intertwined

Differs from one culture to another

Critical in one culture may be unimportant in another culture

Measurement of intelligence will be influenced by culture

Culture Differences Western cultures view intelligence as a means for individuals to devise categories and to engage in rational debate Eastern cultures see it as a way for members of a community to recognize contradiction and complexity and to play their social roles successfully

Western cultures view intelligence as a means for individuals to devise categories and to engage in rational debate

Eastern cultures see it as a way for members of a community to recognize contradiction and complexity and to play their social roles successfully

Evidence Supporting Cultural Influences Kpelle tribe in Africa Prefer functional sorting In Western society, seen as less intelligent Westerners prefer hierarchical sorting Italian Americans’ IQ study First generation median = 87 Ceci (1996) Italian Americans scores were slightly above average (above 100) Cultural assimilation is the explanation

Kpelle tribe in Africa

Prefer functional sorting

In Western society, seen as less intelligent

Westerners prefer hierarchical sorting

Italian Americans’ IQ study

First generation median = 87

Ceci (1996) Italian Americans scores were slightly above average (above 100)

Cultural assimilation is the explanation

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Eight types of abilities that are independent of one another Visual / Spatial Intelligence Musical Intelligence Verbal Intelligence Logical/Mathematical Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence Naturalist Intelligence

Eight types of abilities that are independent of one another

Visual / Spatial Intelligence

Musical Intelligence

Verbal Intelligence

Logical/Mathematical Intelligence

Interpersonal Intelligence

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence

Naturalist Intelligence

Gardner’s Theory Is modular, each type is independent of another Allows for existence of savants

Is modular, each type is independent of another

Allows for existence of savants

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Emphasizes how 3 types of abilities work together to create intelligent behavior Triarchic Theory Analytical Compare, Evaluate & Analyze Creative Insights, Synthesis, Adapting in unique situations Practical Dealing with Everyday tasks Relating to world

Emphasizes how 3 types of abilities work together to create intelligent behavior

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Intelligence involves not merely adapting to one’s environment but in some cases modifying the environment or selecting another Intelligences are developing abilities not fixed characteristics of an individual; Traditional definitions conceptualize intelligence to remain essentially constant throughout an adult life Intelligence means adapting using your strengths and improving or compensating for your weaknesses

Intelligence involves not merely adapting to one’s environment but in some cases modifying the environment or selecting another

Intelligences are developing abilities not fixed characteristics of an individual; Traditional definitions conceptualize intelligence to remain essentially constant throughout an adult life

Intelligence means adapting using your strengths and improving or compensating for your weaknesses

Artificial Intelligence The Turing test Used to refer to a proposal made by Turing (1950) as a way of dealing with the question whether machines can think Can an observer who has a conversation with a computer and a human figure out which conversationalist is the computer? Computer passes Turing test if the person cannot

The Turing test

Used to refer to a proposal made by Turing (1950) as a way of dealing with the question whether machines can think

Can an observer who has a conversation with a computer and a human figure out which conversationalist is the computer?

Computer passes Turing test if the person cannot

Computer Programs Better than Humans Deep Blue and Chess 1,000,000,000,000 positions/sec 100 - 200 billion moves considered Able to evaluate moves Beat world champion Kasparov in 1997 match

Deep Blue and Chess

1,000,000,000,000 positions/sec

100 - 200 billion moves considered

Able to evaluate moves

Beat world champion Kasparov in 1997 match

Psychotherapy AI ELIZA Weizenbaum (1966) created this program to engage in a dialogue imitative of the style favored in Rogerian psychotherapy The program can successfully emulate human conversation to a degree that humans often assumed they were communicating remotely over teletype with another human ELIZA's technique of responding to keyword-matching demonstrated the plausibility of natural language understanding by computers PARRY Colby (1963) created a computer simulation of a paranoid human Psychologists reliably judged PARRY's interactive output as being paranoid schizophrenic and were unable to distinguish transcripts of a session with PARRY from that of a session originating from a human patient

ELIZA

Weizenbaum (1966) created this program to engage in a dialogue imitative of the style favored in Rogerian psychotherapy

The program can successfully emulate human conversation to a degree that humans often assumed they were communicating remotely over teletype with another human

ELIZA's technique of responding to keyword-matching demonstrated the plausibility of natural language understanding by computers

PARRY

Colby (1963) created a computer simulation of a paranoid human

Psychologists reliably judged PARRY's interactive output as being paranoid schizophrenic and were unable to distinguish transcripts of a session with PARRY from that of a session originating from a human patient

Expert Systems Telephone network maintenance Credit evaluation Tax planning Detection of insider securities trading Mineral exploration Irrigation and pest management Predicting failure of diesel engines Medical diagnosis Class selection for students

Telephone network maintenance

Credit evaluation

Tax planning

Detection of insider securities trading

Mineral exploration

Irrigation and pest management

Predicting failure of diesel engines

Medical diagnosis

Class selection for students

Limitations of Expert Systems Can handle only narrow domains Do not possess common sense/intuition Have a limited ability to learn

Can handle only narrow domains

Do not possess common sense/intuition

Have a limited ability to learn

Summary To date, no computer AI can match all dimensions of human intelligence For algorithmic problems, computers can perform faster, however humans still write the programming

To date, no computer AI can match all dimensions of human intelligence

For algorithmic problems, computers can perform faster, however humans still write the programming

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