Published on March 12, 2014
1 Chapter Three – Create The Create C is concerned with helping teachers find appropriate resources and evaluate their relevance. It covers freely available resources, such as Open Educational Resources (OER) and materials available on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), as well as materials that are not free. The Capture designs help teachers decide how these resources will be used and to what extent they need to be adapted to meet the context of the learning intervention. In addition, there are designs that help teachers create new resources; such as interactive multimedia, audio and video resources. In other words it covers the ways in which search engines, OER repositories and social bookmarking can be used to find and collate relevant resources and activities. Resource audit This design helps teachers to decide how they will source the content for their module/course, including the possibility of incorporating OER produced elsewhere. It consists of a template (Table 1); teachers brainstorm potential content and then add the content they find to the appropriate cell in the template. The table enables them to define what format the content is in, i.e. text and graphics, audio, video, slides or other, as well as indicating to what extent the content needs to be adapted or whether content needs to be created from scratch. As well as providing them with an evolving and growing list of resources for the course/module, it enables them to get a sense of how long it will take to develop the content and the level of technical expertise needed. In the case of text-based resources, the approximate number of words should be indicated, along with a description of how the text will be displayed, i.e. as a web page, or in a blog or wiki and, if possible, the link for the resource should be included. The appropriate Creative Commons licence should be indicated for OER. For audio, video and slide resources, the tool that is used to create the resource should be noted, along with a link to it and the appropriate Creative Commons licence. Similarly the tool used to create other kinds of resources should be listed, along with the link and Create Commons licence. Table 1: The Resource Audit Template Content (under the appropriate licences) Format Text and graphics Audio Video Slides (such as PowerPoint or Prezzi) Other (such as Adobe presenter) What I find and reuse as is What I find, tweek and use
2 What I find, repurpose and use What I create for this course/module What I get the learners to create! Example of a completed resource audit Table 2 provides an example of a completed resource audit Table 2: An example of a completed resource audit Content (under the appropriate licences) Format Text and graphics Audio Video Slides (such as PowerPoint or Prezzi) Other (such as Adobe presenter) What I find and reuse as is OER for section 1. Reflective task from source Z. Guidelines on assignment writing 3 minute Podcasts for each section, introducing the section, the content and the objectives. Ten minute Podcast for Section 3, interview with an expert in the field. Four iTunesU resources for Sections 1 and 7, approximate learning time 2 hours. One hour TED video for Section 4. 30 minute Slideshare with audio for Section 5. Organisation X’s website What I find, tweek and use OER resource for Section 2. Assessment rubric for X. What I find, repurpose and use OER for Section 3. New Podcast based on X. Slides adapted from resource Y. What I create for this course/module Introduction to all sections of the module. 5 e-tivities. Summaries. Assessment rubrics 5 to 8- minute summaries of key points per section. Advice and guidance for assessment. A 5-minute talking head to introduce the programme and the academic team. Support slides for sections 4, 7 and Detailed presentations for sections 2, 3 and 6.
3 Feedback on draft assignments. What I get the learners to create! An activity getting the learners to contribute to a wiki, building up a glossary for the course, on the key definitions and concepts. Learners keep a reflective blog of their learning. Each learner is assigned a topic to research and is asked to produce a five- minute Podcast on the topic. Learners are assigned to group and create a shared slideshare presentation on a particular topic. Strategies for finding resources If you ask teachers what would help them make more effective use of technologies in their teaching, they want two things: relevant resources and examples of how technologies can be effectively use, preferably in their subject discipline, and people who they can connect with and discuss design practices and effective teaching strategies. However, finding appropriate resources is non- trivial and takes time. Furthermore, teachers lack the necessary digital literacy skills to make informed evaluation judgments about the effectiveness of resources that they find. This design provides guidance and support to address these issues; it provides strategies for finding and evaluating resources. Table 3 provides a rubric consisting of questions and guidance for teachers on how to carry out effective searching strategies. The first colum in the table provides questions and guidance on finding resources, using: search engines, OER repositories, MOOCs, discipline specific sites, publishing houses and professional bodies. This includes links to useful websites of resources. In the second column the teacher lists the topics for which they wish to find resources. In the third column they list the resource they have found along with an indication of how the resources will be used, which can feed into the Resource Audit design, described earlier. Table 3: Rubric of questions and guidance on finding resources Question or guidance Descript ion of the topic Detai ls of searc h resul ts Using search engines. Based on the topic, brainstorm key words, try and be specific, as general words will generate a lot of links. Useful links for
4 strategies for using search engines: http://www.commoncraft.com/video/web-search-strategies http://www.slideshare.net/LinscheidLib/using-search-engines http://www.bristol.ac.uk/library/support/findinginfo/search-engines/ http://www.bruceclay.com/eu/seo/usekeywords.htm http://www.google.com/insidesearch/features/images/searchbyimage. html http://google.about.com/od/googlepowersearches/qt/wildcardqt.htm Using OER repositories. Some useful links to OER repositories and resources: https://openeducationalresources.pbworks.com/w/page/27045418/Fi nding%20OERs http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELi7061.pdf http://www.jorum.ac.uk/ http://www.edutopia.org/open-educational-resources-guide http://www.col.org/resources/crsMaterials/Pages/OCW-OER.aspx http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/programmerelated/2013/Openeduc ationalresources.aspx http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/infokits/oer/ http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/new-to- teaching/oer/introduction http://www.cincinnatistate.edu/online/faculty-resources/online- repositories-for-open-educational-resources http://wikieducator.org/Exemplary_Collection_of_Open_eLearning_Cont ent_Repositories http://edtechreview.in/news/561-national-repository-of-open- educational-resources-by-mhrd http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm http://www.elearning.eps.manchester.ac.uk/blog/2011/open- educational-resources-list/ http://crln.acrl.org/content/73/6/334.full Using MOOCs. Some useful links to MOOCs. http://www.educause.edu/library/massive-open-online-course-mooc http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/7-things-you-should- know-about-moocs http://www.mooc-list.com/ http://www.openculture.com/free_certificate_courses http://www.technoduet.com/a-comprehensive-list-of-mooc-massive- open-online-courses-providers/ http://www.moocs.co/ http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/distance- learning/moocs-(massive-open-online-courses)/ http://distancelearn.about.com/od/isitforyou/tp/Top-Massively-Open- Online-Courses-Moocs.htm http://aelsnet.net/links-to-moocs/ http://www.teachthought.com/technology/list-75-moocs-teachers- students/ http://www.connectivistmoocs.org/ http://moocnewsandreviews.com/mooc-around-the-world-our-global- list-open-online-classes-part-3/ Discipline specific sites and resources. Some useful links to discipline specific sites and resources: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/disciplines http://www.crlt.umich.edu/category/tags/discipline-specific- resources http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/new-to-teaching http://oerconsortium.org/discipline-specific/
5 http://www.smu.edu/Provost/CTE/Resources/TeachCourse/Disciplin e-SpecificIdeas http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919550/D iscipline-specific%20Resources http://www.ciwf.org.uk/resources/default.aspx?gclid=CIfHtbCDjb0CF WvjwgodI5wATg http://medicaleducation.wikifoundry.com/page/Discipline+Specific+R esources http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/k-leand/craft/disciplines.html http://www.texascollaborative.org/disciplinespecificresources.htm Publishing houses and resource from professional organisations: http://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/?gclid=CKitqZ6Djb0C FenjwgodPnQAfw http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0073383775/student_view0/discipline- specific_resources.html http://www.cisco.edu/s/926/index.aspx?pgid=569&gid=1 Tools to create resources This design provides guidance and support on creating resources, whether these are interactive multimedia resources, audio resources, video resources, presentations or other types of resources. It includes advice on which format is most appropriate in a given context, suggested tools and tips and hints for creating the resources. Resources can be displayed as simple web pages or in an institutional Learning Management System (LMS). Bird lists the following free mobile-friendly LMSs for interactivity: Edmodo, Course Sites (the free version of Blackboard), iTunes U Course, Wordpressblogs, Facebook private groups, and Xerte which was developed by Nottingham university. Making materials available on iTunes U is increasingly popular. There are a number of advantages: it is possible to distribute the materials in pdf, epub, mp3 and mp4 formats, it is a mechanism for sharing materials with the world, it is compatible with both Windows and Mac computers, it is possible to create an iTunes U Course as an individual teacher, and iTunes U Course is private to your students. Note, however, that iTunes U Course is IOS only. Table 4 compare the different formats that resources can be displayed in, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. Table 4: Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of different formats Medium Positives Negatives Reason for choosing or not choosing Text Speed Reuse of preexisting material Flat Does not communicate emotion Image A lot can be communicate in a single image Can be misleading without context Audio More can be communicated Not seen as flashy as video
6 through audio than just words Convenient for multitasking, learners can listen whilst doing other things Video The most information is conveyed via video Great for demonstrating skills Bulky and padded Demands attention With the increased interest in the use of smart phones and mobile devices, ebooks are being used more and more for displaying content. These devices mean that learning anywhere, anytime is now a reality and an increasing number of learners have mobile devices. They are also particularly useful in developing countries or areas where there is limited access to the interest. There are a number of ways in which these can be created. Table 5 provides a summary of the different formats that can be created for ebooks and their advantages and disadvantages. Bird suggests the following advice in terms of choosing which format to use. For phones she suggests using epub, although you might also want to consider .mobi. For tables use pdf and if BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) create both if pssible. Calibre is a good tool for creating ebook resources. First you need to save a word file as html. Then you import into Calibre and save as either an epub or mobile. Note that pdf to epub does not work well. An alternative tool is epubud.com. Given the prevalence of iPads and iPad Minis iBooks Author is worth considering. It can be used to create engaging and attractive resources. Bird also lists the following as additional facts about ebooks: embedded multimedia ebooks are only IOS at the moment, a useful App for Android devices for epub books is Aldiko, the Kindle App is versatile and can be used on any device, if your institution has a production department, it is worth considering buying inDesign and, finally, if you are an individual producer you might want to consider buying a Mac and getting pages for creating documents. Picture books are useful and popular with learners. They can be just simple pdfs and can include illustrations, maps and drawings. Format Devices Advantages Disadvantages Reason for choosing or not choosing pdf Everything Runs on everything Does not flow so hard to read on small screens epub Everything but Kindle Best for phones Flows, takes advantage of the device’s power Futureproofed Cannot view on a computer screen unless a reader is installed, such as Calibre Mobi Kindle Kindle is big Kindle only iBooks Apple iBooks only Pretty and easy iPad is market leader for now Apply iBooks only Notation is a problem There are a number of advantages of sound. Firstly, copyright is easier if the sound is from recorded lectures and there are now a number of video capture
7 systems that can be used to create not just video but sound, such as Echo360 and Panopto. One advantage of audio over video is that the file size is considerably smaller. Another advantage is that the listener can do something else at the same time. One of the disadvantages of video is that many academics are reluctant to see themselves on screen, this is not an issue with audio. Another advantage is that voices conveys more than text and it is possible to convey emotion. Audio has been useful used to provide learners with feedback on their assignments for example. Finally, it is an excellent and easy way to close distance, particularly useful with distance learners, who can often feel isolate. The following is a list of common and free tools for creating audio: Audacity, Garageband, and Window Sound Recorded. It is advisable to save as mp3 rather than wma or wav. Two other useful tools to consider are AudioBoo and SoundCloud, these are similar in quality to YouTube in terms of sound. With these tools you record in the browser. It is possible to attach comments in the browser or simply upload. However, there is a limit to the length of the recording with these tools. It is also possible to create threaded sound discussions, particularly useful if you are wanting learners to collaborate. Three useful tools are: WimbaVoiceBoard, Voice Thread and Voxopop. Bird lists the following as ways in which audio can be used by learners: for audio feedback on assigments – there is evidence from research that this results in increased marks and student retention rates,1 voice discussion, for use with field work, for example a learner can listen to a teacher’s description of a flower and then they can audio-record their own comments and findings, and finally, learners can generate their own content, for example by using AudioBoo for the iPhone. As described in the table, video presents the richest presentation mode. YouTube is one of the most popular sites for sharing video, although it is important to note that it is not available in some countries, such as China. Key statistics about YouTube include: the fact that there is a ten minute limit, it is easy to embed in blogs and LMSs, comments can be added, YouTube provides good statistics on how the video is being used, an excellent way of sharing and branding institutional resources, and it is a good way to convert files to mp4 format. However, a disadvantage is that it is difficult to download videos from YouTube. An alternative to YouTube is Vimeo. It is possible to create longer videos than with YouTube, there is much less junk, it is easy to use and to download the videos. Other tools or sites include: ScreenR, Screencast-O-Matic (browser based), CamStudio which is a free Windows application, Quicktime Pro, free on Macs. Other alternatives include: Camtasia, Captivate and Articulate with are all very good and can enable you to create rich interactive materials, but these tools are not free. There is increasing demand from students for having lectures recorded, so that they can go back and replay. There are a number of options, the whole lecture can be recorded, just the audio can be made available, or audio plus slides. Two options are possible, live streaming or making the lectures available as downloads. One issue is that a significant amount of server space is required and this is expensive. Screen capture software include: QuickTime, Camtasia and 1 See for example the Duckling project, http://www.le.ac.uk/duckling
8 iShowU. Simple narrated Powerpoints are particularly effective and can be created on sites such as Slideshare or within PowerPoint.
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