chapter three

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Information about chapter three
Education

Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Sharck

Source: authorstream.com

第三章 植物的礦質與氮素營養:  第三章 植物的礦質與氮素營養 第一節 植物體內的必需元素 第二節 植物細胞對溶質的吸收 第三節 植物對礦質的吸收及運輸 第四節 氮的同化 第五節 合理施肥的生理基礎 第一節 植物體內的必需元素:  第一節 植物體內的必需元素 一、植物體內的必需元素 必需元素是指在植物完成生活史中,有著不可替代的直接生理作用的、不可缺少的元素。 植物材料 水分 乾物質 有機物 灰分 105°C 600°C (10%─95%) (5%─95%) (90%─95%) (5%─10%) 揮發 殘留 Slide3:  一、植物體內的必需元素 1. 植物生長必需的元素有16種,根據植物需要 的多寡將其分為巨量元素和微量元素。 (1)巨量元素︰C、H、O、N、P、K、Ca、 Mg、S。它們約占植物體乾重的0.01%~ 10%。 (2)微量元素︰Fe、B、Mn、Zn、Cu、Mo、 Cl。約占植物體乾重的10-5%~10-3%。 Slide4:  2. 有益元素︰某種元素並非植物必需的,但常在植物體內存在,對植物生長發育生理功能表現有利作用,並能部分代替某一必需元素的作用,減緩缺素症的元素。 如Ni(也有的將其視為必需元素),Na,Si,Co,Se,稀土元素等。 二、植物必需元素的生理功能 1.是細胞架構物質的組成成分。 2.是生命活動的調節者。 3.起電化學作用。 Slide5:  三、必需元素的缺素症狀 :參考下列示意圖--- 缺氮-生長緩慢、矮小且葉片萎黃。 缺磷-葉部綠色的著色改變,更嚴重時,葉會變畸形與壞疽斑。 缺鉀-先在老葉出現雜色或黃色斑點,接著在葉緣出現壞死。 缺鈣-造成根生長差,因中膠層損害使顏色改變且摸起來滑溜。 缺鎂-葉部黃化現象。 缺硫-葉部黃化(包括圍繞著維管束的組織)。 缺錳-依土壤的狀況、氣候及作物種類,廣布在某些區域,且會 因低土壤ph值(<6)與高量有機物而更加惡化。 缺鉬-也會引起氮的缺乏,若氮充足,鉬不足,則幼葉會捲曲稱 為“鞭尾”,老葉則會出現葉脈間的萎黃與壞死。 缺鋅-植物的節間縮短且葉小。 缺硼-主根與次生根細胞分裂及加長的抑制作用,造成根短胖且 叢生。 缺銅-造成生長遲緩,幼葉變形,特別柑橘屬幼葉的損失,稱為 “夏季梢枯” Slide6:  圖3-1.B  蕃茄磷元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) 圖3-1.A  蕃茄氮元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) Slide7:  圖3-2.B 蕃茄鈣元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) 圖3-2.A 蕃茄鉀元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) Slide8:  圖3-3.A 蕃茄鎂元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) 圖3-3.B 蕃茄硫元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) Slide9:  圖3-4.A 蕃茄錳元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) 圖3-4.B 蕃茄鉬元素缺乏的病症 . (Epstein and Bloom 2004) Slide10:  圖3-5.A 蕃茄鋅元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) 圖3-5.B. 蕃茄硼元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) Slide11:  圖3-6. 蕃茄銅元素缺乏的病症. (Epstein and Bloom 2004) Slide12:  圖3-7   以光學儀器觀察幼苗生長情況. 第二節 植物細胞對溶質的吸收:  第二節 植物細胞對溶質的吸收 植物細胞吸收礦質元素的模式有兩類: 模式 被動吸收 主動吸收 Slide14:  一、被動吸收︰ 概念︰ 被動吸收指由於擴散作用或其他物理過程而進行的吸收,是不消耗代謝能量的吸收過程,亦稱非代謝吸收。 植物細胞吸收礦質元素的模式有兩類: 擴散作用:分子或離子沿著化學勢或電化學勢 梯度轉移的現象。 協助擴散︰小分子物質經膜轉運蛋白順濃度梯 度或電化學梯度跨膜的轉運。 Slide15:  1. 擴散作用: 杜南平衡︰細胞內的可擴散負離子和正離 子濃度的乘積等於細胞外可擴散正、負離 子濃度乘積時的平衡,叫杜南(道南)平衡。 〔Na1+〕×〔Cl1-〕=〔Na0+〕×〔Cl0-〕。 2. 協助擴散︰ 膜轉運蛋白可分為兩大類︰ Slide16:  離子通道 圖3-8 Slide17:  載體 圖3-9 Slide18:  二、主動吸收︰ 概念︰ 主動吸收是指細胞利用呼吸釋放的能量作功而逆著電化學勢梯度吸收離子的過程。 ATP酵 共轉運 Slide19:  二、主動吸收︰ 1.ATP酵和載體 圖3-10 Slide20:  圖3-11 ATP酵和載體 Slide21:  二、主動吸收︰ 2.共轉運 圖3-12 Slide22:  2.共轉運: 圖3-13 第三節 植物對礦質的吸收及運輸:  第三節 植物對礦質的吸收及運輸 一、吸收部位︰ 葉片 根系 根毛區為主 Slide24:  圖3-14 Stages in the initiation and development of a soybean root nodule. (A) Events involved in the initiation of the nodule: (1) the root excretes substances; (2) these substances attract rhizobia and stimulate them to produce cell-division factors; (3) cells in the root cortex divide to form the primary nodule meristem. (B) Stages of infection and nodule formation: (4) bacteria attach to the root hair; (5) cells in the pericycle near the xylem poles are stimulated to divide; (6) the infection thread forms and extends inward as the primary nodule meristem and the pericylce continue to divide; (7) the two masses of dividing cells fuse into a single clump while the infection thread continues to grow; (8) the nodule elongates and differentiates, including the vascular connection to the root stele. Bacteroids are released into the cells in the center. Slide25:  圖3-15   (A) Transverse section of a root showing the activation of pericycle cells (arrowheads) facing protoxylem poles (asterisk). (B) Longitudinal section. Cell divisions (arrows) are seen in pericycle activated cells (arrowheads). (C) Details of an activated site on a transverse section. Strong labeling of the microtubular cytoskeleton is seen in pericycle cells (arrowhead) facing a protoxylem pole (asterisk). The arrow points to a cell division. Fluorescence intensity is indicated by colors from low (blue) to high (red). (D) Transverse section of a non-infected control cell. Note the very low level of fluorescence (reporting on microtubules) on the pericycle (asterisks). In A-D, asterisks indicate non-activated pericycle cells, black arrows indicate activated endodermis cells. The bars in A, B and D = 25 µm, bar in C = 10 µm. (E and F) The activation of inner cortical cells (arrows) facing activated pericycle cells (arrowheads) in transverse sections of roots. Asterisks denote the protoxylem pole, e: endodermis, c: root cortex. (G and H) Longitudinal root sections showing changes in microtubular cytoskeleton organization during cortical cell activation. Note the organization of the cortical microtubules in the non-infected root shown in (G), which is no longer apparent in the infected root shown in (H). Microtubules surround the nucleus (arrowheads) in the activated cells shown in (H). (I) Transverse section of cortical cells showing the microtubular cytoskeleton with microtubule arrays (green) radiating from the nucleus (red). The randomly organized cortical microtubule cytoskeleton network is shown in (J) Bar = 10 µm. (K) An initial primordium in a root longitudinal section. Cell divisions indicated by arrowheads. Asterisk indicates activated pericycle. (From Timmers et al. 1999.) (Click image to enlarge.) Slide26:  二、根系吸收礦質的特點︰ 1.對礦質和水分的相對吸收; 2.對離子的吸收具有選擇性; 生理酸性鹽︰對於(NH4)2SO4一類鹽,根對NH4+吸收多於和快於SO42-,故溶液中留存許多SO42-,導致溶液變酸,這種鹽類叫生理酸性鹽。 生理鹼性鹽︰對於NaNO3-類鹽,植物吸收NO3-較Na+多而快,這種選擇吸收的結果使溶液變鹼,故稱這類鹽為生理鹼性鹽。 生理中性鹽︰對於NH4NO3-一類的鹽,植物吸收其陰離子與陽離子的量幾乎相等,不改變周遭介質的ph值,故稱這類鹽為生理中性鹽。 Slide27:  3.單鹽毒害及離子頡頏; 單鹽毒害溶液中只有一種金屬離子對植物起毒害作用的現象 離子拮抗在發生單鹽毒害的溶液中加入少量其他金屬離子,即能減弱或消除這種單鹽毒害,離子間的這種作用稱為離子頡頏,也稱離子對抗或離子拮抗。 4.平衡溶液 在含有適當比例的多種鹽溶液中,各種離子的毒害作用被消除,植物可以正常生長髮育,這種溶液稱為平衡溶液 Slide28:  三、根系吸收礦質的過程 土壤養分 根表養分 植物體內養分 第一步 第二步 1.離子被吸附在根系細胞的表面(圖3-16) 離子交換 接觸交換 2.離子進入根部導管(圖3-17) 質外體途徑(自由空間) 共質體途徑 Slide29:  圖3-16 圖3-17 Slide30:  四、影響根系吸收礦質的元素 1.溫度 2.通氣狀況 3.土壤溶液濃度 4.土壤ph Slide31:  圖3-18 土壤ph與各元素有效性的關係 Slide32:  五、葉片對礦質的吸收 根外營養植物除了根部吸收礦質元素外,地上部分主要是透過葉片吸收礦質營養的過程。 模式︰氣孔,角質層 影響元素︰ 內因 外因 保證溶液附著在葉面上 溶液在葉片下停留的時間 溫度 呼吸作用 Slide33:  六、礦質元素在植物體內的運輸 1.運輸的形式 N︰主要以醯胺和氨基酸,少量以硝酸鹽形式 P︰主要以磷酸鹽形式,也可磷醯膽鹼形式 S︰主要以硫酸根形式,少數以蛋氨酸形式 金屬離子形式 2.運輸的途徑 短距離透過共質體和質外體。 長距離透過木質部。 Slide34:  圖3-19   Tree trunk immediately after girdling (left) and later (right). Girdling is the removal of the bark of a tree in a ring around the trunk. At right, materials translocated from the leaves have accumulated in the region above the girdle and caused it to swell. Slide35:  圖3-20   Photosynthate from the leaves appears in the sieve elements of phloem in the stem. 14CO2 was supplied to a source leaf of morning glory (Ipomea nil). 14C was incorporated into sugars synthesized in the photosynthetic process, which were then transported to other parts of the plant. The location of the label is revealed in the tissue cross sections by the presence of dark grains on the film. (A) shows a low magnification of the cross section of the stem (50×), revealing dark spots resulting from the silver grains in the film, shown in higher magnification (325×) in (B). The label is confined almost entirely to the sieve elements of the phloem. (Courtesy of D. Fisher.) (Click image to enlarge.) 第四節 氮的同化:  第四節 氮的同化 一、植物的氮源 有機氮化物 (氨基酸、尿素等) 空氣 N2 土壤 無機氮化物 氨態氮 硝態氮 二、硝酸鹽的還原 硝酸鹽 硝酸鹽還原酵 亞硝酸鹽 氨 亞硝酸鹽還原酵 Slide38:  圖3-22   Images detected by Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System around the pod position of the N-deficient and N-sufficient plants. Each image was the average intensity during 10 min. Note that in the 21-30 and 31-40 min. images of the N-deficient pod, the pod image becomes noticeable as radioactivity accumulates in the pod. No comparable image can be seen in the plant with ample N supply. (Click image to enlarge.) Nitrogen Transport in Soybean Slide39:  二、硝酸鹽的還原 圖3-23 Slide40:  三、氨的同化 圖3-24 Slide41:  圖3-25 第五節 合理施肥的生理基礎:  第五節 合理施肥的生理基礎 一、作物的需肥特點 1.不同作物或同一作物的不同品種需肥情況不同 2.作物不同需肥形態不同 3.同一作物在不同生育期需肥不同 Slide43:  二、施肥的指標 1. 土壤營養指標 2.作物營養指標 形態指標 生理指標 長相 葉色 體內養分狀況 葉綠素含量 胺和澱粉含量 酵活性 Slide44:  三、發揮肥效的措施 1.肥水配合 2.深耕改土,改良環境 3.改善光照條件,提升光合效率 4.改革施肥模式,促進作物吸收 Slide45:  思考題: 鐵、鎂和氮的不足都會造成黃化現象,鐵的黃化作用只在幼葉葉脈間發生,而鎂和氮不足所造成的黃化在較老的葉片上出現。請描述這些差異,為什麼這些元素缺乏會導致黃化現象,又為何其徵狀有所不同? 什麼原因可能使土壤在高鈣供應中使磷缺少,而影響植物生長。

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