Chapter 8: The Democratization of American Culture, 1824-1840

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Information about Chapter 8: The Democratization of American Culture, 1824-1840
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Published on April 11, 2014

Author: suziehinman

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Chapter 8: The Democratization of American Culture, 1824-1840

1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats and Whigs Democracy and American Culture, 1820–1840 8 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States

2 Visions of America, A History of the United States

3 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats and Whigs I. Democracy in America II. Andrew Jackson and His Age III. White Man’s Democracy IV. Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System V. Playing the Democrats’ Game: Whigs in the Election of 1840 DEMOCRACY AND AMERICAN CULTURE, 1820–1840 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States

4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democracy in America A. Democratic Culture B. Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth

5 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democratic Culture Democracy in America – Count Alexis de Tocqueville’s analysis of the influence of democracy on American life –First published in America in 1838 –Remains one of the most important commentaries on American society ever written

6 Visions of America, A History of the United States

7 Visions of America, A History of the United States Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth How did the frontier nurture the growth of democracy? What aspects of Davy Crockett’s life made him a symbol of frontier democracy?

8 Visions of America, A History of the United States Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth Crockett’s Almanac – A cheap magazine- like publication that vividly described the frontier politician Davy Crockett –Included his legendary adventures wrestling alligators, hunting bears, and fighting Indians

9 Visions of America, A History of the United States

10 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions SHOULD WHITE MEN WITHOUT PROPERTY HAVE THE VOTE? • In 1821, New Yorkers met to revise their state’s constitution and argued about property requirements for voting. • Kent and Sanford argued for and against property requirements. Kent: If citizens without property vote, unchecked democracy would threaten private property and political stability. Sanford: Anyone who bears the burdens of government has earned the right to have a say in it.

11 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions Why did James Kent oppose eliminating property requirements? SHOULD WHITE MEN WITHOUT PROPERTY HAVE THE VOTE?

12 Visions of America, A History of the United States Andrew Jackson and His Age A. The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” B. The Election of 1828: “Old Hickory’s” Triumph C. The Reign of “King Mob” D. States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis

13 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” What were the strengths of John Quincy Adams as a presidential candidate? What role did Clay’s American System play in the election of John Quincy Adams? Why did Jackson view the election of 1824 as a “corrupt bargain”?

14 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” American System – Henry Clay’s comprehensive national plan for economic growth – Included protective tariffs for American industry and government investment in roads and other internal improvements

15 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” “Corrupt Bargain” – Term presidential candidate Jackson’s supporters used to attack the alliance between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay that deprived Jackson of the presidency

16 Visions of America, A History of the United States

17 Visions of America, A History of the United States

18 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1828: “Old Hickory’s” Triumph How did the “Coffin Handbill” attempt to discredit Andrew Jackson?

19 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1828: “Old Hickory’s” Triumph “Old Hickory” – The nickname that General Andrew Jackson earned for seeming as stout as an “Old Hickory tree” in fighting against the British in the War of 1812

20 Visions of America, A History of the United States

21 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Reign of “King Mob” How did the spoils system promote Jackson’s democratic agenda?

22 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Reign of “King Mob” Spoils System – The name applied to Jackson’s system of replacing government officeholders with those loyal to him

23 Visions of America, A History of the United States

24 Visions of America, A History of the United States

25 Visions of America, A History of the United States States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis What was the theory of states’ rights? How does the political cartoonist represent nullification theory in the cartoon Despotism?

26 Visions of America, A History of the United States States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis Nullification – A constitutional doctrine advanced by supporters of states’ rights that held that individual states could nullify unconstitutional acts of Congress Force Bill – A bill enacted by Congress that gave President Jackson the power to use military force to collect revenue, including tariffs

27 Visions of America, A History of the United States

28 Visions of America, A History of the United States

29 Visions of America, A History of the United States White Man’s Democracy A. Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era B. The Cherokee Cases C. Resistance and Removal

30 Visions of America, A History of the United States Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era What types of legal disabilities did blacks face outside of the slave South? What does Indian policy reveal about the limits of Jacksonian democracy? How does the Grand Caravan represent Jackson’s Indian policy?

31 Visions of America, A History of the United States Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era Indian Removal Act of 1830 – Legislation that gave President Jackson the authority to remove Native American tribes to lands west of the Mississippi

32 Visions of America, A History of the United States

33 Visions of America, A History of the United States

34 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Cherokee Cases What do the Cherokee cases reveal about the limits of judicial power?

35 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Cherokee Cases Cherokee Cases – Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1830) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the two cases in which the Supreme Court of the United States determined that Indian nations retained certain rights of sovereign nations but did not enjoy the full powers of a sovereign nation

36 Visions of America, A History of the United States Resistance and Removal What was the “Trail of Tears”?

37 Visions of America, A History of the United States

38 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA • John Ross argued that the Cherokee should resist relocation. • The majority of the Cherokee supported him.

39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA • Elias Boudinot believed that relocation was inevitable and that the Cherokee should comply. • His view was less popular than Ross’s.

40 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Choices regarding forced relocation ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA Agree to the treaty, relocate, and seek best possible terms Reject the treaty and resist removal, by force if necessary Boycott the vote on the treaty, lobby Congress, and rally support for protection of Native American rights

41 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and consequences • Ross lobbied Congress and nearly defeated the treaty. • Treaty was signed; the Cherokee were given two years to relocate. Was resistance to removal a viable strategy for the Cherokee? ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA

42 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •Was it realistic for the Cherokees to think that they might win support for their cause? ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA

43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System A. Third Party Challenges: Anti-Masonry and Workingmen’s Parties B. The Bank War and the Rise of the Whigs C. Andrew Jackson, the Whigs, and the Bank War D. Economic Crisis and the Presidency of Martin Van Buren

44 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System Whigs – Anti-Jackson political party –Name evoked the seventeenth-century English opponents of absolute monarchy and the Patriot leaders who had opposed the tyranny of George III during the American Revolution –Whigs supported Clay’s American System and a stronger central government

45 Visions of America, A History of the United States Third Party Challenges: Anti-Masonry and Workingmen’s Parties Why was Masonry a cause for concern among some Americans? What lasting contributions did the Anti- Masons make to American politics?

46 Visions of America, A History of the United States

47 Visions of America, A History of the United States

48 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Bank War and the Rise of the Whigs How did Jackson use democratic rhetoric to rally support for his Bank Veto?

49 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Bank War and the Rise of the Whigs Bank Veto Speech – Jackson’s veto of a bill to re-charter the Bank of the United States, in which he explained why he opposed the bank and laid out his own vision of American democracy and constitutional government

50 Visions of America, A History of the United States Andrew Jackson, the Whigs, and the Bank War How did Whigs interpret the Bank Veto?

51 Visions of America, A History of the United States Economic Crisis and the Presidency of Martin Van Buren What are some of the signs of economic distress in the political cartoon on the Panic of 1837?

52 Visions of America, A History of the United States

53 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History “King Andrew the First” shows the Whig view of Jackson: Has royal crown and scepter Holds a copy of the Bank Veto Tramples the Constitution KING ANDREW AND THE DOWNFALL OF MOTHER BANK

54 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History KING ANDREW AND THE DOWNFALL OF MOTHER BANK Lightning bolts emanate from Jackson’s order. Bank’s president is portrayed as a demon. Henry Clay lies helpless and calls for rescue.

55 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History • Why is Jackson portrayed as a monarch in “King Andrew the First”? • How does this pro-Jackson cartoon portray the Whigs? KING ANDREW AND THE DOWNFALL OF MOTHER BANK

56 Visions of America, A History of the United States Playing the Democrat’s Game: Whigs in the Election of 1840 A. The Log Cabin Campaign B. Gender and Social Class: The Whig Appeal C. Democrats and Whigs: Two Visions of Government and Society

57 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Log Cabin Campaign What political innovations helped the Whigs out-democrat the Democrats?

58 Visions of America, A History of the United States

59 Visions of America, A History of the United States Gender and Social Class: The Whig Appeal Why were women drawn to the Whig message?

60 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats and Whigs: Two Visions of Government and Society What were the most important differences between Whigs and Democrats on economic issues? What role did ethnic politics play in the contest between Whigs and Democrats?

61 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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