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Chapter 8

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Information about Chapter 8
Education

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Bruno

Source: authorstream.com

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Chapter 8:  Chapter 8 Water Erosion and Deposition 8.1 Surface Water:  8.1 Surface Water Explain what causes runoff Compare rill, sheet, gully, and stream erosion Discuss the three different stages of stream development Describe how alluvial fans and deltas form 8.1 Runoff:  8.1 Runoff Runoff water that does not soak into the ground or evaporate flows across the Earth’s surface Part of the water cycle – Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, evaporation 8.1 Runoff:  8.1 Runoff Factors affecting runoff The amount of rain The more rain, the more runoff The length of time Longer periods results in more runoff Slope of the Earth’s surface Steeper the slope the more runoff Amount of vegetation Less vegetation results in more runoff 8.1 The Effects of Gravity:  8.1 The Effects of Gravity Water will increase in speed by 9.8m/s As water moves down a slope the water picks up speed and energy Faster the water; the more erosion occurs 8.1 Water Erosion:  8.1 Water Erosion Rill and Gully Erosion Rill erosion Occurs when small streams form during periods of heavy rain Leaves behind a small scar on the Earth’s surface Over time rill erosion can become gully erosion Gully Erosion Occurs when a rill channel becomes broader and deeper More erosion occurs than with rill erosion 8.1 Water Erosion:  8.1 Water Erosion Sheet Erosion Water falls on a broad flat area Water accumulates until it begins moving slowly Occurs when rainwater flows into lower elevations, carrying sediments 8.1 Water Erosion:  8.1 Water Erosion Stream Erosion Stream – water that continues to flow along a depression the water created Water moves sediments from the bottom and sides of the steam Stream becomes wider and deeper River – stream wider than 12 feet 8.1 River System Development:  8.1 River System Development River Systems Water in the river begins as precipitation that is transported through the following structures: Sheet, rills, gullies, streams, rivers Drainage Basin The area that a stream receives its water Eventually the water reaches the main river that drains into the ocean Mississippi River basin is the largest U.S. basin 8.1 Stages of Stream Development:  8.1 Stages of Stream Development Streams are defined as being classified as: Young Mature Old The stage is determined by the slope of the surface The actual age doesn’t influence a stream’s classification 8.1 Stages of Stream Development:  8.1 Stages of Stream Development Young streams Steep sides May have whitewater rapids and waterfalls Found on steep slopes Usually straight and narrow Has a high energy level Erodes on the bottom more than the sides 8.1 Stages of Stream Development:  8.1 Stages of Stream Development Mature streams Flows less swiftly through its valley The energy begins to erode the sides Begin to curve due to the varying speeds of the water 8.1 Stages of Stream Development:  8.1 Stages of Stream Development Deeper water areas flow faster than shallow areas due to less friction Areas of faster water erodes the sides faster forming curves called meanders Areas where rocks are softer erode faster than the areas opposite the stream The broad flat valley floor is called a floodplain Usually covered by water when the stream floods 8.1 Stages of Stream Development:  8.1 Stages of Stream Development Old Streams Flows slowly through a broad, flat floodplain Little erosion occurs due to the slope of the stream River systems have streams of all ages 8.1 Deposition by Surface Water:  8.1 Deposition by Surface Water Sediments are deposited when the water loses its energy Larger sediments settle out first Smallest sediments are last to settle Types of deposits Alluvial fans Usually found in at the base of a mountain valley Deltas The sediments are not deposited until it reaches the ocean 8.2 Groundwater :  8.2 Groundwater Describe the groundwater system Explain the effect that soil and rock permeability have on groundwater movement Describe ways that groundwater erodes and deposits sediments 8.2 Groundwater System Development:  8.2 Groundwater System Development Water that soaks into Earth’s surface becomes part of the groundwater system Between each particle of weathered rock in the soil are spaces called pores 8.2 Groundwater System Development:  8.2 Groundwater System Development Permeability Soil and rocks are permeable when water can pass through them The more pores present the more permeable the soil or rock The more easily water can move Clay has very few pores for water to travel through Clay is impermeable due to the lack of pores 8.2 Groundwater System Development:  8.2 Groundwater System Development Groundwater Movement Water continues to move downward until it hits impermeable rock called bedrock Water begins to fill up the pores above the layer An aquifer may develop A layer of permeable rock that transmits water freely The area of all pores are filled with water are called the zone of saturation The upper surface is called the water table 8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers:  8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers Wells Water well – hole drilled through the Earth’s surface until the water table is reached and a pump pumps water to the Earth’s surface Can go dry because water is removed faster than it is replaced 8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers:  8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers Artesian well – a type of well that doesn’t need a pump Requires a sloping aquifer between two impermeable layers Increases the pressure of the area Hole drilled in the surface can cause a fountain 8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers:  8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers Springs The area on Earth’s surface where the water table reaches the surface Water is usually cold, but can be hot 8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers:  8.2 Wells, Springs, and Geysers Geysers A hot spring that erupts periodically, shooting water and steam into the air Groundwater is heated to very high temperatures causing it to expand underground Some water is pushed out of the ground Remaining water boils quickly Steam flows out of the opening pushing the remaining water out with it Releases 40,000 liters (10,566 gal) once per hour 8.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition:  8.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition Acidic groundwater can dissolve limestone underground just as it can above ground The space is dissolved over time until an underground opening is formed called a cave Cave Formation With erosion deposition must occur Water evaporates and leaves behind a small amount of deposits on the ceiling called stalactites Water drips to the floor evaporates and leaves behind deposits called stalagmites 8.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition:  8.2 Groundwater Erosion and Deposition Sinkholes Underground rock near the surface is dissolved Eventually the surface can’t support itself and collapses into the cave 8.3 Water wars:  8.3 Water wars Give examples of ways people use water Explain why some communities must rely on water diversion for their water supply Identify a problem caused by water diversion 8.3 Water as a Resource:  8.3 Water as a Resource Average person uses 397 liters (105 gal) every day Some communities must transport their water over great distances to support their use 8.3 Water as a Resource:  8.3 Water as a Resource A bitter battle Water that is transported to new locations may be needed to fill up water resources for other communities or natural resources 8.3 Two Points of View:  8.3 Two Points of View Conserve the natural resource Decreasing water levels in natural resources Increases the salt and mineral concentrations Could cause organisms naturally found in these areas to be killed Could lose the habitat organisms need to survive due to the lowered water levels 8.3 Two Points of View:  8.3 Two Points of View Water needed by people Water needs to be diverted from natural areas to support human needs 8.4 Ocean Shoreline:  8.4 Ocean Shoreline Describe forces that cause shoreline erosion Compare and contrast different types of shorelines List some origins of sand 8.4 The Shore:  8.4 The Shore Shoreline forces Surface waves constantly move sediments back and forth Waves are constantly eroding and depositing sediments Longshore currents Occurs when waves reach the shore at angles Causes water to run parallel to the shore 8.4 Sandy Beaches:  8.4 Sandy Beaches Rocky shores are eroded by the waves crashing into them and the abrasion of the sediments being transported to form sand Beaches Deposits of sediments that run parallel to the shore Deposits could be made from seashell fragments Sand Erosion and Deposition Sand can be moved by humans and storms besides waves 8.4 Sandy Beaches:  8.4 Sandy Beaches Barrier Islands Sand deposits that parallel the shore but are separated from the mainland Begin as a ridge of sand deposited by waves Hurricanes and other storms can increase the amount of deposits to sea level or above Wind blows the sand into dunes keeping it above sea level Can last a few years or centuries, but always temporary

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