Chapter 7 Training And Development

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Information about Chapter 7 Training And Development
Business

Published on November 25, 2008

Author: arvindprabhu

Source: slideshare.net

C HAPTER 7 Training and Development

Training (Stephanie, 2005) A learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes to enhance employee performance.

A learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes to enhance employee performance.

Training and Development Training Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members. Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns. Development Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an individual’s skills for the future responsibilities. Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

Training

Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members.

Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns.

Development

Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an individual’s skills for the future responsibilities.

Training and Development Training aims to improve employees’ current work skills and behavior, whereas development aims to increase abilities in relation to some future position or job. International Human Resource Management, 4th Edition by Peter J. Dowling and Denice E. Welch

Training aims to improve employees’ current work skills and behavior,

whereas development aims to increase abilities in relation to some future position or job.

Definitions of training and development Remedial skills training Developmental training Orientation training ‘ firm specific’ ‘ transferable’

Remedial skills training

Developmental training

Orientation training

‘ firm specific’

‘ transferable’

Training and Development and Other HRM Functions Training may permit hiring less-qualified applicants Selection Effective selection may reduce training needs Training aids in the achievement of performance Performance Appraisal A basis for assessing training needs and results Training and development may lead to higher pay Compensation Management A basis for determining employee’s rate of pay Availability of training can aid in recruitment Recruitment Provide an additional source of trainees Training may include a role for the union Labor Relations Union cooperation can facilitate training efforts

Why is training and development becoming an increasingly important issue? Increasing importance of product and service quality (Collin, 2001 and Mabey & Salaman, 1995) Flexibility (Crofts, 1995 & Hyman, 1996) New technology (Hyman, 1996) Downsizing and delayering in lean organisations (Hyman, 1996) Employee commitment (Hyman, 1996 & Holden, 2001) Skills and labour shortages

Increasing importance of product and service quality (Collin, 2001 and Mabey & Salaman, 1995)

Flexibility (Crofts, 1995 & Hyman, 1996)

New technology (Hyman, 1996)

Downsizing and delayering in lean organisations (Hyman, 1996)

Employee commitment (Hyman, 1996 & Holden, 2001)

Skills and labour shortages

Training Dollars Spent On… Source: Tammy Galvin, “The People,” Training 38, no. 10 (October 2001): 58–64.

PERFORMANCE CONSULTING Human Resource Management 11e Robert L. Mathis AND John H. Jackson

Considerations in the design of training programmes Major Stages involved in a training programme (Casico, 1998) Determining training needs Organisational analysis Demographic analysis Task/knowledge, skills and attitudes(KSA) analysis Person analysis

Major Stages involved in a training programme (Casico, 1998)

Determining training needs

Organisational analysis

Demographic analysis

Task/knowledge, skills and attitudes(KSA) analysis

Person analysis

Systematic Training Process Human Resource Management 11e Robert L. Mathis AND John H. Jackson

Implementing training On or off the job? Active versus passive learning The sequencing of learning Individual differences Group versus individually-based training initiatives Transfer to the job situation Evaluating the effectiveness of the training process

On or off the job?

Active versus passive learning

The sequencing of learning

Individual differences

Group versus individually-based training initiatives

Transfer to the job situation

Evaluating the effectiveness of the training process

Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees On-the-Job Training (OJT) Apprenticeship Training Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training Classroom Instruction Programmed Instruction Audiovisual Methods Computer-based Training and E-Learning Simulation Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

On-the-Job Training (OJT)

Apprenticeship Training

Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training

Classroom Instruction

Programmed Instruction

Audiovisual Methods

Computer-based Training and E-Learning

Simulation

Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees (cont’d) On-the-job training (OJT) Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer. Apprenticeship training System of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work. Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

On-the-job training (OJT)

Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer.

Apprenticeship training

System of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work.

Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees (cont’d) Cooperative Training Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational classes. Internship Programs Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations. Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

Cooperative Training

Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational classes.

Internship Programs

Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.

Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees (cont’d) Vestibule Training A special type of classroom facility is used to give instruction in the operation of equipment like that found in operating departments The emphasis is on instruction rather than production. Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

Vestibule Training

A special type of classroom facility is used to give instruction in the operation of equipment like that found in operating departments

The emphasis is on instruction rather than production.

Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees (cont’d) Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) A system that delivers instructional materials directly through a computer terminal in an interactive format. Computer-managed Instruction (CMI) A system normally employed in conjunction with CAI that uses a computer to generate and score tests and to determine the level of training proficiency.

Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI)

A system that delivers instructional materials directly through a computer terminal in an interactive format.

Computer-managed Instruction (CMI)

A system normally employed in conjunction with CAI that uses a computer to generate and score tests and to determine the level of training proficiency.

Training Methods for Management Development On-the-Job Experiences Seminars and Conferences Case Studies Management Games Role Playing Behavior Modeling Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

On-the-Job Experiences

Seminars and Conferences

Case Studies

Management Games

Role Playing

Behavior Modeling

On-the-Job Experiences Coaching Understudy Assignment Job Rotation Lateral Transfer Special Projects Action Learning Staff Meetings Planned Career Progressions Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

Coaching

Understudy Assignment

Job Rotation

Lateral Transfer

Special Projects

Action Learning

Staff Meetings

Planned Career Progressions

Case Studies The use of case studies is most appropriate when: Analytic, problem-solving, and critical thinking skills are most important. The KSAs are complex and participants need time to master them. Active participation is desired. The process of learning (questioning, interpreting, and so on) is as important as the content. Team problem solving and interaction are possible.

The use of case studies is most appropriate when:

Analytic, problem-solving, and critical thinking skills are most important.

The KSAs are complex and participants need time to master them.

Active participation is desired.

The process of learning (questioning, interpreting, and so on) is as important as the content.

Team problem solving and interaction are possible.

Role Playing Successful role play requires that instructors: Ensure that group members are comfortable with each other. Select and prepare the role players by introducing a specific situation. To help participants prepare, ask them to describe potential characters. Realize that volunteers make better role players. Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

Successful role play requires that instructors:

Ensure that group members are comfortable with each other.

Select and prepare the role players by introducing a specific situation.

To help participants prepare, ask them to describe potential characters.

Realize that volunteers make better role players.

Behavior Modeling Behavior Modeling An approach that demonstrates desired behavior and gives trainees the chance to practice and role-play those behaviors and receive feedback. Involves four basic components: Learning points Model Practice and role play Feedback and reinforcement Managing Human Resources, 13th Edition - George W. Bohlander, and Scott A. Snell

Behavior Modeling

An approach that demonstrates desired behavior and gives trainees the chance to practice and role-play those behaviors and receive feedback.

Involves four basic components:

Learning points

Model

Practice and role play

Feedback and reinforcement

Some Typical Costs and Benefits of Training Human Resource Management 11e Robert L. Mathis AND John H. Jackson

Different levels of training activity in different countries Internal factors Poorly educated and mistrustful senior managers Short-term corporate objectives Relative weakness of the personnel function

Internal factors

Poorly educated and mistrustful senior managers

Short-term corporate objectives

Relative weakness of the personnel function

Different levels of training activity in different countries External factors: systems of national Vocational Education and Training (Germany, Singapore..) 1. VET initiatives in UK in the 1990s Modern apprenticeships Investors in people(IiP)

External factors: systems of national Vocational Education and Training (Germany, Singapore..)

1. VET initiatives in UK in the 1990s

Modern apprenticeships

Investors in people(IiP)

Different levels of training activity in different countries External factors: systems of national vocational education and training 2. Schemes introduced by the New Labour government Learning And Skills Council University For Industry (Now Renamed UfI) The New Deal Union ‘Learning Representatives’

External factors: systems of national vocational education and training

2. Schemes introduced by the New Labour government

Learning And Skills Council

University For Industry (Now Renamed UfI)

The New Deal

Union ‘Learning Representatives’

International training and development International Human Resource Management, 4th Edition by Peter J. Dowling and Denice E. Welch

Expatriate Career Decision Points International Human Resource Management, 4th Edition by Peter J. Dowling and Denice E. Welch

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