Chapter 6 - Texas Government

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Published on February 24, 2014

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Government and Politics in the Lone Star State: Theory and Practice L. Tucker Gibson, Jr. and Clay Robison Prepared by Darrial Reynolds Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 6: The Party System in Texas Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Political Parties and a Democratic Society  What  Are Political Parties? Help Maintain and Develop Democracy Provide a process for choosing leaders  Provide representation  Ensure responsive government  Clarify policy alternatives   Three Heads (Parts) of a Political Party Party in the electorate  Party in government  Party as an organization  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Political Parties and a Democratic Society  Parties  versus Interest Groups Interest Groups Shape public policy by influencing public officials  Focus on a narrow range of policy issues  Engage in electoral activities  Do not nominate candidates   Political Parties Recruit and nominate candidates  Take responsibility for management of government  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Political Parties and a Democratic Society  Two-Party System Two-party politics in the United States  Natural two-way division of political views and interests  State election laws, such as plurality voting and ballot requirements  Hard for third parties to build a support base  Few folks hold strong, cohesive ideological beliefs.  Many issues cut across race and class lines.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Political Parties and a Democratic Society  Third  Parties in Texas Historical Tradition of Third Parties  None able to achieve statewide success    Populists (1890s) and La Raza Unida (1970s) threatened the established party structure. Libertarians qualify for placement on the statewide ballot. Democratic Party response to third parties   Co-opted movements through policy concessions Used restrictive legislation to reduce political participation Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Functions of Political Parties  Recruit and Nominate Candidates An individual wins the party’s nomination if he or she gets the majority vote in the primary.  Terrell Election Laws of 1903 and 1905  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Functions of Political Parties  Contest Elections and Mobilize Voters Parties mobilize voters for specific candidates.  60 percent of Texas voters identify with either the Republican or the Democratic Party.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Functions of Political Parties  Organize and Manage the Government Governors appoint people from their political parties who have the same policy objectives.  Political parties also are important in the organization of the Texas legislature.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Functions of Political Parties  Mediate the Effects of Separation of Powers Governors need support for programs, and legislators need support to enact their bills.  Greater support if the governor and a majority of the legislature are of the same party  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Functions of Political Parties  Provide Accountability Political parties criticize each other when it comes to the performance of government.  Political parties provide electoral competition for political offices.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Functions of Political Parties  Manage Conflict and Aggregate Interests Political parties aggregate interests by finding common interests among groups of voters.  Political parties manage conflict by supporting a variety of programs and common principles.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Functions of Political Parties  Set the Policy Agenda Candidates running for public office announce their support or opposition to specific policies.  Officeholders try to carry out policies that will solidify their support among the voters.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in the Electorate  One-Party Democratic Politics Strong anti-Republican sentiments following Reconstruction  Use of modified class politics  Formation of the conservative Establishment  Race issues used to divide lower social groups   Constitutional and legislative restrictions on political participation Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in the Electorate  Factionalism  in the Democratic Party Split between liberals and conservatives in the 1930s National party realignment to the Democratic Party  New liberal Democratic Party agenda centered on New Deal policies   Conservatives maintain control of the state party. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party In The Electorate  Modified One-Party Democratic Politics Bifactionalism caused conservative voters to leave the Democratic Party.  Rise of the Republican Party  President Truman angers Texas oil interests.  Republicans build a stronger party organization.  Election victories of John Tower and Bill Clements   Rise of liberal wing of the Democratic Party Ralph Yarborough elected to U.S. Senate in 1957  Mobilization of minority groups  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in the Electorate  Two-Party  Politics in Texas Realignments Issues cut across existing party allegiances.  A critical election occurs.  It produces a long-term shift in party support and identification.   No single critical election in Texas Realignment over welfare and civil rights policies  Two-party system in place by the 1990s  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Discussion Question  Party  Realignment Was the realignment of the Texas party system primarily the result of issues related to race and ethnicity, or is there a range of other factors that contributed to reshaping the state’s party system? Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in the Electorate  Republican Dominance Took and held control of the Texas House and Senate and all statewide offices by 2002  Accounted for a majority of Texas’s congressional delegation in 2004  Democrats unable to field experienced and well-financed candidates in statewide races  Still competitive at the county level  Able to regain six seats in the Texas House in 2006  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in the Electorate  Changing  Party Identification In 1952, 66 percent of Texans were Democrats and only 6 percent claimed to be Republicans.  This pattern changed little from 1952 to 1964. Dramatic decrease in Democratic Party identification between 1974 and 1984  By 2012, 33 percent of Texans were Republicans and 33 percent claimed to be Democrats.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in the Electorate  Differences between Republicans and Democrats  Texas Republican Party   College educated, higher income, migrant and suburban residents, more men than women, older people, frequent church attendance, and Anglos. Texas Democratic Party  Less educated, lower incomes, urban residents, more women than men, younger people, and attend church less regularly, and ethnic and racial minorities. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in the Electorate  Are Parties Realigning or Slowly Disappearing?  Dealignment   Voter indifference toward partisan labels is shown in ticket splitting and numbers of independents. Revitalization  Parties reclaim basic party functions, especially in the areas of elections and campaigns. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party Organization  The  Precinct Chair   Permanent Organizations Helps organize the precinct convention County Executive Committee and Chair Organize the primary and recruit candidates  Organize the county convention   State Executive Committee and Chair Accept filings of candidates for offices  Organize the state convention  Engage in fund-raising  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party Organization  The  Temporary Organizations Key Functions Hold precinct, county or senatorial district, and state conventions every two years  Select delegates to county or senatorial, state, and national conventions  Elect members of the permanent party organization  Certify candidates nominated in the primaries  Build the party platform  Choose presidential electors  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party Organization  The Precinct Convention Held the night of the primary and commences soon after polling ceases at 7:00 p.m.  Any individual who voted in the party’s primary may attend.  Select resolutions and delegates that will be sent to the county or senatorial convention  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party Organization  The County or Senatorial District Conventions County or senatorial district conventions are held two weeks after the precinct conventions.  Select resolutions and delegates to the state conventions every two years  Nominate candidates for countywide offices  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party Organization  State Conventions The state convention is held in June of evennumbered years.  Nominate candidates for statewide office and adopt the party platform  Pick the chair and vice chair and members of the executive committee  Pick delegates to the national nominating conventions in presidential election years  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party Organization  The  Party Activists People who participate in the organizational activates of the political party Predominately white, Protestant, well-educated, and higher-income  Most raised in Texas or residents for over twenty years  Republican Party has fewer minority activists.  Republican leadership is more conservative.  Democratic leadership is mostly moderates and liberals.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Party in Government  Little Evidence of the Responsible Party Model in Texas Decentralized parties, with diffused leadership  Develop coalitions among groups pursuing different interests  Supporters hold different ideological and programmatic views  Antiparty tradition in Texas  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

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